Arabic Verbs 3

38816

 

Imperfective Structures

Forms II Through QIV (continued)

 

Yai Verbs

Represented by form VII in the three introductory examples, these verbs have the prefix yaand the green vowel i in the active voice (and like all imperfective verbs, the prefix yuand the green vowel a in the passive voice).

Yai verbs are the majority of the verb forms. They can be identified by elimination: any verb form that is neither quadriliteral (composed of four letters) nor begins with a reflexive prefix ta- will be a Yai verb. The Yai verbs are namely the forms VII through XV and forms QIII & QIV .

Yai Verb Forms

 

Imperfective

(Active-Indicative)

Perfective

(Active)

Form VII

يَنْفَعِلُ

اِنْفَعَلَ

yanfail(u)

‘infaal(a)

Form VIII

يَفْتَعِلُ

اِفْتَعَلَ

yaftail(u)

‘iftaal(a)

Form IX

يَفْعَلُّ*

اِفْعَلََّ

yaf”all(u)

‘if”all(a)

Form X

يَسْتَفْعِلُ

اِسْتَفْعَلَ

yastaf”il(u)

‘istaf”al(a)

Form XI

يَفْعَاْلُّ*

اِفْعَاْلَّ

yaf”aall(u)

‘if”aall(a)

Form XII

يَفْعَوْعِلُ

اِفْعَوْعَلَ

yaf”aw”il(u)

‘if”aw”al(a)

Form XIII

يَفْعَوِّلُ

اِفْعَوَّلَ

yaf”awwil(u)

‘if”awwal(a)

Form XIV

يَفْعَنْلِلُ

اِفْعَنْلَلَ

yaf”anlil(u)

‘if”anlal(a)

Form XV

يَفْعَنْلِيْ*

اِفْعَنْلَىْ

yaf”anliy

‘if”anlaa

Form QIII

يَفْعَنْلِلُ

اِفْعَنْلَلَ

yaf”anlil(u)

‘if”anlal(a)

Form QIV

يَفْعَلِلُّ*

اِفْعَلَلَّ

yaf”alill(u)

‘if”alall(a)

*These are irregular doubled verb. The green vowel is hidden in forms IX & XI and displaced backward in form QIV. The original structures of these forms will be restored only in the feminine plural conjugations.

*This verb always conjugates as a defective verb. The final weak A will be transformed to y in the imperfective.

Examples on conjugation:

Form VIII

اِنْزَعَجَ

‘inzaaj(a)

(He) was/became annoyed

 

 

المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِنْزَعَجَ :اِنْفَعَلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) become annoyed

‘anza”ij(u)

أَنْزَعِجُ

(You masc.) become annoyed

tanza”ij(u)

تَنْزَعِجُ

(You fem.) become annoyed

tanza”ijeen(a)

تنْزَعِجِيْنَ

(He) becomes annoyed

yanza”ij(u)

يَنْزَعِجُ

(She) becomes annoyed

tanza”ij(u)

تَنْزَعِجُ

D

U

A

L

(You) become annoyed

tanza”ijaan(i)

تَنْزَعِجَاْنِ

(They masc.) become annoyed

yanza”ijaan(i)

يَنْزَعِجَاْنِ

(They fem.) become annoyed

tanza”ijaan(i)

تَنْزَعِجَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) become annoyed

nanza”ij(u)

نَنْزَعِجُ

(You masc.) become annoyed

tanza”ijoon(a)

تَنْزَعِجُوْنَ

(You fem.) become annoyed

tanza”ijn(a)

تَنْزَعِجْنَ

(They masc.) become annoyed

yanza”ijoon(a)

يَنْزَعِجُوْنَ

(They fem.) become annoyed

yanza”ijn(a)

يَنْزَعِجْنَ

 

Form VIII

اِنْتَظَرَ

‘intzar(a)

 

(He) waited (tr.)

 

 

 

المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِنْتَظَرَ : اِفْتَعَلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) wait

‘antazir(u)

أَنْتَظِرُ

(You masc.) wait

tantazir(u)

تَنْتَظِرُ

(You fem.) wait

tantazireen(a)

تَنْتَظِرِيْنَ

(He) waits

yantazir(u)

يَنْتَظِرُ

(She) waits

tantazir(u)

تَنْتَظِرُ

D

U

A

L

(You) wait

tantaziraan(i)

تَنْتَظِرَاْنِ

(They masc.) wait

yantaziraan(i)

يَنْتَظِرَاْنِ

(They fem.) wait

tantaziraan(i)

تَنْتَظِرَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) wait

nantazir(u)

نَنْتَظِرُ

(You masc.) wait

tantaziroon(a)

تَنْتَظِرُوْنَ

(You fem.) wait

tantazirn(a)

تَنْتَظِرْنَ

(They masc.) wait

yantaziroon(a)

يَنْتَظِرُوْنَ

(They fem.) wait

yantazirn(a)

يَنْتَظِرْنَ

 

 

 

Try conjugating the following verb:

 

اِنْتَصَرَ

‘intasar(a)

 

(He) won

 

 

 

 

المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِنْتَصَرَ : اِفْتَعَلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) win

‘antasir(u)

أَنْتَصِرُ

(You masc.) win

tantasir(u)

تَنْتَصِرُ

(You fem.) win

tantasireen(a)

تَنْتَصِرِيْنَ

(He) wins

yantasir(u)

يَنْتَصِرُ

(She) wins

tantasir(u)

تَنْتَصِرُ

D

U

A

L

(You) win

tantasiraan(i)

تَنْتَصِرَاْنِ

(They masc.) win

yantasiraan(i)

يَنْتَصِرَاْنِ

(They fem.) win

tantasiraan(i)

تَنْتَصِرَاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) win

nantasir(u)

نَنْتَصِرُ

(You masc.) win

tantasiroon(a)

تَنْتَصِرُوْنَ

(You fem.) win

tantasirn(a)

تَنْتَصِرْنَ

(They masc.) win

yantasiroon(a)

يَنْتَصِرُوْنَ

(They fem.) win

yantasirn(a)

يَنْتَصِرْنَ

 

 

The forms that denote color or bodily defect state of the subject (IX & XI) are doubled verbs. They will conjugate regularly except in the feminine plural conjugations where they will need the insertion of an i (the hidden green vowel) between the two doubled letters of the stem.

Form IX

اِخْضَرَّ

‘ikhdarr(a)

 

(He) greened (up)

 

 

المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِخْضَرَّ : اِفْعَلَّ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) green

‘akhdarr(u)

أَخْضَرُّ

(You masc.) green

takhdarr(u)

تَخْضَرُّ

(You fem.) green

takhdarreen(a)

تَخْضَرِّيْنَ

(He) greens

yakhdarr(u)

يَخْضَرُّ

(She) greens

takhdarr(u)

تَخْضَرُّ

D

U

A

L

(You) green

takhdarraan(i)

تَخْضَرَّاْنِ

(They masc.) green

yakhdarraan(i)

يَخْضَرَّاْنِ

(They fem.) green

takhdarraan(i)

تَخْضَرَّاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) green

nakhdarr(u)

نَخْضَرُّ

(You masc.) green

takhdarroon(a)

تَخْضَرُّوْنَ

(You fem.) green

takhdarirn(a)

تَخْضَرِرْنَ

(They masc.) green

yakhdarroon(a)

يَخْضَرُّوْنَ

(They fem.) green

yakhdarirn(a)

يَخْضَرِرْنَ

 

 

Form XI

اِحْمَاْرَّ

‘ihmaarr(a)

 

(He) reddened (up) (much)

 

 

المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِحْمَاْرَّ : اِفْعَاْلَّ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) green

‘ahmaarr(u)

أَحْمَاْرُّ

(You masc.) green

tahmaarr(u)

تَحْمَاْرُّ

(You fem.) green

tahmaarreen(a)

تَحْمَاْرِّيْنَ

(He) greens

yahmaarr(u)

يَحْمَاْرُّ

(She) greens

tahmaarr(u)

تَحْمَاْرُّ

D

U

A

L

(You) green

tahmaarraan(i)

تَحْمَاْرَّاْنِ

(They masc.) green

yahmaarraan(i)

يَحْمَاْرَّاْنِ

(They fem.) green

tahmaarraan(i)

تَحْمَاْرَّاْنِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) green

nahmaarr(u)

نَحْمَاْرُّ

(You masc.) green

tahmaarroon(a)

تَحْمَاْرُّوْنَ

(You fem.) green

tahmaarirn(a)

تَحْمَاْرِرْنَ

(They masc.) green

yahmaarroon(a)

يَحْمَاْرُّوْنَ

(They fem.) green

yahmaarirn(a)

يَحْمَاْرِرْنَ

 

Form X

اِسْتَعْمَلَ

‘ista“mal(a)

 

(He) used

 

 

المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِسْتَعْمَلَ :اِسْتَفْعَلَ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) use

‘asta”mil(u)

أَسْتَعْمِلُ

(You masc.) use

tasta”mil(u)

تَسْتَعْمِلُ

(You fem.) use

tasta”mileen(a)

تَسْتَعْمِليْنَ

(He) uses

yasta”mil(u)

يَسْتَعْمِلُ

(She) uses

tasta”mil(u)

تَسْتَعْمِلُ

D

U

A

L

(You) use

tasta”milaan(i)

تَسْتَعْمِلانِ

(They masc.) use

yasta”milaan(i)

يَسْتَعْمِلانِ

(They fem.) use

tasta”milaan(i)

تَسْتَعْمِلانِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) use

nasta”mil(u)

نَسْتَعْمِلُ

(You masc.) use

tasta”miloon(a)

تَسْتَعْمِلوْنَ

(You fem.) use

tasta”miln(a)

تَسْتَعْمِلْنَ

(They masc.) use

yasta”miloon(a)

يَسْتَعْمِلُوْنَ

(They fem.) use

yasta”miln(a)

يَسْتَعْمِلْنَ

 

Form QIV is also a doubled verbs like forms IX & XI; however, the green short vowel here is not hidden but is rather displaced backward. In the feminine plural conjugations, the original form of QIV verbs (‘if”allal(a)) must be restored before conjugation; or, in another way of saying it, the green short vowel must be restored to its original place in the feminine plural conjugations.

 

Form QIV

اِطْمَأَنَّ

‘itmaann(a)

 

(He) was/became reassured

 

 

المُضَاْرِعُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ Indicative Imperfective

(Active Voice)

اِطْمَأَنَّ :اِفْعَلَلَّ

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

(I) become reassured

‘atma’inn(u)

أَطْمَئِنُّ

(You masc.) become reassured

tatma’inn(u)

تَطْمَئِنُّ

(You fem.) become reassured

tatma’inneen(a)

تَطْمَئِنِّيْنَ

(He) becomes reassured

yatma’inn(u)

يَطْمَئِنُّ

(She) becomes reassured

tatma’inn(u)

تَطْمَئِنُّ

D

U

A

L

(You) become reassured

tatma’innaan(i)

تَطْمَئِنّانِ

(They masc.) become reassured

yatma’innaan(i)

يَطْمَئِنّانِ

(They fem.) become reassured

tatma’innaan(i)

تَطْمَئِنّانِ

P

L

U

R

A

L

(We dual/plu.) become reassured

natma’inn(u)

نَطْمَئِنّ

(You masc.) become reassured

tatma’innoon(a)

تَطْمَئِنّوْنَ

(You fem.) become reassured

tatma'<ninn(a)

تَطْمَئْنِنَّ

(They masc.) become reassured

yatma’innoon(a)

يَطْمَئِنُّونَ

(They fem.) become reassured

yatma'<ninn(a)

يَطْمَئْنِنَّ

 

 

Imperfective Conjugation

Yui Verbs Forms II, III, IV, & QI four forms with four letters
Yaa Verbs Forms V, VI & QII prefix ta-
Yai Verbs Forms VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, QIII & QIV Everything else

 

Imperfective Conjugation

Yaa

Active voice of forms I, V, VI & QII

Yai

Active voice of forms I, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, QIII & QIV

Yau

Active voice of form I

Yui

Active voice of forms II, III, IV, & QI

Yua

Passive voice of all forms

 

 

Arabic Verbs

 

Imperfective

(Active-Indicative)

Perfective

(Active)

Form I

يَفْعلُ

فَعلَ

yaf”?l(u)

fa?l(a)

Form II

يُفَعِّلُ

فَعَّلَ

yufa””il(u)

fa””al(a)

Form III

يُفَاْعِلُ

فَاْعَلَ

yufaa”il(u)

faa”al(a)

Form IV

يُفْعِلُ

أَفْعَلَ

yuf”il(u)

‘af”al(a)

Form V

يَتَفَعَّلُ

تَفَعَّلَ

yatafa””al(u)

tafa””al(a)

Form VI

يَتَفَاْعَلُ

تَفَاْعَلَ

yatafaa”al(u)

tafaa”al(a)

Form VII

يَنْفَعِلُ

اِنْفَعَلَ

yanfa”il(u)

‘infa”al(a)

Form VIII

يَفْتَعِلُ

اِفْتَعَلَ

yafta”il(u)

‘ifta”al(a)

Form IX

يَفْعَلُّ

اِفْعَلََّ

yaf”all(u)

‘if”all(a)

Form X

يَسْتَفْعِلُ

اِسْتَفْعَلَ

yastaf”il(u)

‘istaf”al(a)

Form XI

يَفْعَاْلُّ

اِفْعَاْلَّ

yaf”aall(u)

‘if”aall(a)

Form XII

يَفْعَوْعِلُ

اِفْعَوْعَلَ

yaf”aw”il(u)

‘if”aw”al(a)

Form XIII

يَفْعَوِّلُ

اِفْعَوَّلَ

yaf”awwil(u)

‘if”awwal(a)

Form XIV

يَفْعَنْلِلُ

اِفْعَنْلَلَ

yaf”anlil(u)

‘if”anlal(a)

Form XV

يَفْعَنْلِيْ

اِفْعَنْلَىْ

yaf”anliy

‘if”anlaa

Form QII

يَتَفَعْلَلُ

تَفَعْلَلَ

yatafa”lal(u)

tafa”lal(a)

Form QI

يُفَعْلِلُ

فَعْلَلَ

yufa”lil(u)

fa”lal(a)

Form QIII

يَفْعَنْلِلُ

اِفْعَنْلَلَ

yaf”anlil(u)

‘if”anlal(a)

Form QIV

يَفْعَلِلُّ

اِفْعَلَلَّ

yaf”alill(u)

‘if”alall(a)

 

 Present vs. Future Tense