Arabic script, transliteration, the alphabet

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Arabic script, transliteration, the alphabet

Arabic Transliteration
The transliteration of the Arabic alphabet given below is based on the
Latin alphabet, but some of the letters have an extra sign indicating
some special feature of the Arabic pronunciation of the letter in
question.
The alif ( ا), which is the first letter, has so far not been given any
transliteration, because its sound value varies (to be dealt with in
chapters 6 and 7).
1.3 Alphabet table and transliteration
transliteration standing
alone
final medial initial name

  End of the word Middle of the word Beginning of the word Sound Example

ا‎

ـا‎ ـا‎ ا‎ ʾ / ā ‘a’ as in ‘father’

ب‎

ـب‎ ـبـ‎ بـ‎ b ‘b’ as in ‘bed’

ت‎

ـت‎ ـتـ‎ تـ‎ t ‘t’ as in ‘tent’

ث‎

ـث‎ ـثـ‎ ثـ‎ ‘th’ as in ‘think’

ج‎

ـج‎ ـجـ‎ جـ‎ j ‘j’ as in ‘jam’

ح‎

ـح‎ ـحـ‎ حـ‎ Sharp ‘h’

خ‎

ـخ‎ ـخـ‎ خـ‎ ḫ (kh, x) ‘ch’ as in German ‘Bach’

د‎

ـد‎ ـد‎ د‎ d ‘d’ as in ‘deer’

ذ‎

ـذ‎ ـذ‎ ذ‎ ḏ (dh, ð) ‘th’ as in ‘there’

ر‎

ـر‎ ـر‎ ر‎ r ‘r’ as in ‘run’

ز‎

ـز‎ ـز‎ ز‎ z ‘z’ as in ‘zoo’

س‎

ـس‎ ـسـ‎ سـ‎ s ‘s’ as in ‘sit’

ش‎

ـش‎ ـشـ‎ شـ‎ š (sh) ‘sh’ as in ‘shut’

ص‎

ـص‎ ـصـ‎ صـ‎ ‘s” as in ‘sold’

ض‎

ـض‎ ـضـ‎ ضـ‎ ‘d’ as in ‘bulldozer’

ط‎

ـط‎ ـطـ‎ طـ‎ ‘t’ as in ‘Tazmania’

ظ‎

ـظ‎ ـظـ‎ ظـ‎ ‘th’ as in ‘those’

ع‎

ـع‎ ـعـ‎ عـ‎ ʿ ‘a’ in ‘agh’ when suprised

غ‎

ـغ‎ ـغـ‎ غـ‎ ġ (gh) ‘r’ as in ‘Paris’

ف‎

ـف‎ ـفـ‎ فـ‎ f ‘f’ as in ‘free’

ق‎

ـق‎ ـقـ‎ قـ‎ q ‘q’ as in ‘Qum’

ك‎

ـك‎ ـكـ‎ كـ‎ k ‘k’ as in ‘king’

ل‎

ـل‎ ـلـ‎ لـ‎ l ‘l’ as in ‘lift’

م‎

ـم‎ ـمـ‎ مـ‎ m ‘m’ as in ‘moon’

ن‎

ـن‎ ـنـ‎ نـ‎ n ‘n’ as in ‘net’

ه‎

ـه‎ ـهـ‎ هـ‎ h ‘h’ as in ‘house’

و‎

ـو‎ ـو‎ و‎ w ‘w’ as in ‘wonder’

ي‎

ـي‎ ـيـ‎ يـ‎ y ‘y’ as in ‘yellow’

ء

        ‘o’ as in ‘oh’.
           
    Top vowel

َ‎

a Sounds like ‘a’ in Alabama
    Top vowel

ُ

u Sounds like ‘o’ in Open
    Bottom Vowel

ِ‎

i Sounds like ‘I’ in India

Arabic
script,
transliteration,
the
alphabet

[swf]http://fasiharapca.com/files/swf/ders1.swf, 700, 1200[/swf]

 

1.4 Writing letters in different positions
Below each letter is presented as it appears in different positions in
connected writing when using a computer or as written by hand.
( ( 18  ع.. .. ع.. .. ع ع Ayn
(19) g˙ غ.. .. غ.. .. غ غ G˙ ayn
(20) f ف.. ..ف.. .. ف ف Fa¯
(21) q ق.. .. ق.. .. ق ق Qa¯f
(22) k ك.. .. ك.. .. ك ك Ka¯f
(23) l ل.. .. ل.. .. ل ل La¯m
(24) m م.. .. م.. .. م م Mı – m
(25) n ن.. .. ن.. .. ن ن Nu¯n
(26) h ه.. ..ه.. .. ه ه Ha¯
(27) w (*) و .. و .. و و Wa¯w
(28) y ي.. .. ي.. .. ي ي Y