Arabic Alphabet Chart [29] – Learn Arabic Free Online

Arabic Alphabet
Arabic Alphabet

Arabic Alphabet Chart [29]

pronunciation Transliterated Isolated Isolated pronunciation Initial Medial Final Transcription
أَلِف ̛ālif ا أ Like A in Apple ا ـا ـا ā
بَاء bā̛ ب ب Like B in Baby بـ ـبـ ـب b
تَاء tā̛ ت ت Like T in Tree تـ ـتـ ـت ـة t
ثَاء thā̛ ث ث Like the Th in Theory ثـ ـثـ ـث th
جِيم jim ج ج Sometimes like the G in Girl or like the J in Jar جـ ـجـ ـج j
حَاء hā̛ ح ح Like the h in he yet light in pronunciation حـ ـحـ ـح h
خَاء khā̛ خ خ Like the Ch in the name Bach خـ ـخـ ـخ kh
دَال dāl د د Like the D in Dad د ـد ـد d
ذَال zāl ذ ذ Like the Th in The ذ ـذ ـذ z
رَاء rā̛ ر ر Like the R in Ram ر ـر ـر r
زَاي zāy ز ز Like the Z in zoo ز ـز ـز z
سِين sin س س Like the S in See سـ ـسـ ـس s
شِين shin ش ش Like the Sh in She شـ ـشـ ـش sh
صَاد sād ص ص Like the S in Sad yet heavy in pronunciation صـ ـصـ ـص s
ضَاد dād ض ض Like the D in Dead yet heavy in pronunciation ضـ ـضـ ـض d
طَاء tā̛ ط ط Like the T in Table yet heavy in pronunciation طـ ـطـ ـط t
ظَاء ẓā̛ ظ ظ Like the Z in Zorro yet heavy in pronunciation ظـ ـظـ ـظ
عَينٍ عain ع ع Has no real equivalent sometimes they replace its sound with the A sound like for example the name Ali for علي /عali/ عـ ـعـ ـع ع̛
غَين ghain غ غ Like the Gh in Ghandi غـ ـغـ ـغ gh
فَاء fā̛ ف ف Like the F in Fool فـ ـفـ ـف f
قَاف qāf ق ق Like the Q in Queen yet heavy velar sound in pronunciation قـ ـقـ ـق q
كَاف kāf ك ك Like the K in Kate كـ ـكـ ـك k
لاَم lām ف ل Like the L in Love لـ ـلـ ـل l
مِيم mim م م Like the M in Moon مـ ـمـ ـم m
نُون nun ن ن Like the N in Noon نـ ـنـ ـن n
هَاء hā̛ ه هـ ه Like the H in He هـ ـهـ ـه h
وَاو wāw , و Like the W in the reaction of astonishment saying: WAW! ـو —- ـو W(aw, au, u)
يَاء yā̛ ي ي Like the Y in you يـ ـيـ ـي Y (ay, ai, ῑ)
هَمزَة hamza ء


Seen latter because it differs according to case and context Latter will be discussed separately أ ؤ ـئـ ئ ̛


Now, you can deduce from the herein above Chart that Arabic letters are 29 with the letter hamza, sometimes is regarded as a separate Letter. Further, in the first column above, you can see some dashes or symbols on the Arabic Letter above or below them; they are called Arabic vowels (Described later).

Consider the following three Arabic Letters Characteristics:
a- Letters are connected to form words.
b- Words have vowels on it (described later).
c- Some letters have dots on it.

Do you know that:
1- Arabic structure is different in Alphabet from any other Language.
2- Arabic letters form words by connecting them together.
3- Arabic Alphabet is written and read from right to left.
4- Arabic Letters’ writing has three forms: initial, medial, and final i.e. different in shape according to their position.
5- Letters in isolation and final are mostly the same in shape.
6- Letters in the initial and medial positions are mostly the same in shape.
7- There are many print forms, types of fonts and writing forms for Arabic; yet most common of which is /̛ān-naskh/ (normal writing) النَسخ and /̛ār-ruqعa/ الرِقعة. An elementary/ intermediate Reader/ Learner is advised to use /̛ān-naskh/ writing form.
8- You can find the correct pronunciation in Arabic just from the spelling of the word which is considered a no-trouble-trick of Arabic pronunciation.
9- Arabic Letters can be divided into two groups according to their position

1st Group 
– Can’t be joined on the left side.
– Can be joined to a preceding letter but never to a following one.
– Then, all Arabic Letters in the Alphabet could be connected from both sides except the following mentioned Letters.(see table below)
2nd Group 
– Change shape according to their position in the word. 


1st Group (Non-Connecting Letters) 1st Group Examples 2nd Group (Connecting Letters) 2nd Group Examples
ālif ا سَمَاء 
for “sky”
عain   ع Refer to the three Arabic Letters’ Writing Forms (initial – medial – final)
Dāl د الدَهر
for “past life”
ghain غ Refer to the three Arabic Letters’ Writing Forms (initial – medial – final)
zāl ذ الذَهب
For “gold”
kāf ك Refer to the three Arabic Letters’ Writing Forms (initial – medial – final)
rā̛ ر الرَمَادِي
for “grey color”
hā̛ ه هـ Refer to the three Arabic Letters’ Writing Forms (initial – medial – final)
zāy ز الزَمَان
For “past”
yā̛ ي Refer to the three Arabic Letters’ Writing Forms (initial – medial – final)
wāw و الوَطَن
for “homeland”
Refer to the three Arabic Letters’ Writing Forms (initial – medial – final).
NB: this letter will be discussed later

10- Few Arabic Written Letters could be only differentiated by their dots :

bā̛    ب 
tā̛    ت
thā̛    ث
jim    ج 
hā̛    ح
khā̛   خ
dāl    د
Zāl    ذ
rā̛    ر
Zāy    ز
sin    س
shin    ش
sād    ص 
dād    ض
tā̛    ط
ẓā̛   ظ
عain    ع
ghain    غ
fā̛    ف
qāf    ق
nun    ن

11- There are Confusing Arabic Written Letters phonetically-wise:

Light Sound in Pronunciation Heavy Sound in Pronunciation
tā̛    ت tā̛   ط
Dāl    د dād    ض
zāl    ذ ẓā̛    ظ
sin    س sād   ص
Kāf    ك qāf    ق

12- The Letter tā̛ ت; sometimes it is written like the letter hā̛ in its final form ـهyet with two dots above it ـة. This letter is mostly seen in its final position to indicate a feminine gender ending and is termed ” tā̛ Marbutah”.

13- The Letters fā̛ and qāf in Moroccan Written Arabic are different in their shape as seen below:

Position in word Isolated Initial Medial Final
Form of the letter fā̛ in Moroccan Arabic ڢ ڢـ ـڢـ ـڢ
Form of the letter qāf in Moroccan Arabic ڡ ڧـ ـڧـ ڡ