Arabic Alphabet Chart 
|أَلِف||̛ālif||ا||Like A in Apple||ا||ـا||ـا||ā|
|بَاء||bā̛||ب||Like B in Baby||بـ||ـبـ||ـب||b|
|تَاء||tā̛||ت||Like T in Tree||تـ||ـتـ||ـت ـة||t|
|ثَاء||thā̛||ث||Like the Th in Theory||ثـ||ـثـ||ـث||th|
|جِيم||jim||ج||Sometimes like the G in Girl or like the J in Jar||جـ||ـجـ||ـج||j|
|حَاء||hā̛||ح||Like the h in he yet light in pronunciation||حـ||ـحـ||ـح||h|
|خَاء||khā̛||خ||Like the Ch in the name Bach||خـ||ـخـ||ـخ||kh|
|دَال||dāl||د||Like the D in Dad||د||ـد||ـد||d|
|ذَال||zāl||ذ||Like the Th in The||ذ||ـذ||ـذ||z|
|رَاء||rā̛||ر||Like the R in Ram||ر||ـر||ـر||r|
|زَاي||zāy||ز||Like the Z in zoo||ز||ـز||ـز||z|
|سِين||sin||س||Like the S in See||سـ||ـسـ||ـس||s|
|شِين||shin||ش||Like the Sh in She||شـ||ـشـ||ـش||sh|
|صَاد||sād||ص||Like the S in Sad yet heavy in pronunciation||صـ||ـصـ||ـص||s|
|ضَاد||dād||ض||Like the D in Dead yet heavy in pronunciation||ضـ||ـضـ||ـض||d|
|طَاء||tā̛||ط||Like the T in Table yet heavy in pronunciation||طـ||ـطـ||ـط||t|
|ظَاء||ẓā̛||ظ||Like the Z in Zorro yet heavy in pronunciation||ظـ||ـظـ||ـظ||ẓ|
|عَينٍ||عain||ع||Has no real equivalent sometimes they replace its sound with the A sound like for example the name Ali for علي /عali/||عـ||ـعـ||ـع||ع̛|
|غَين||ghain||غ||Like the Gh in Ghandi||غـ||ـغـ||ـغ||gh|
|فَاء||fā̛||ف||Like the F in Fool||فـ||ـفـ||ـف||f|
|قَاف||qāf||ق||Like the Q in Queen yet heavy velar sound in pronunciation||قـ||ـقـ||ـق||q|
|كَاف||kāf||ك||Like the K in Kate||كـ||ـكـ||ـك||k|
|لاَم||lām||ف||Like the L in Love||لـ||ـلـ||ـل||l|
|مِيم||mim||م||Like the M in Moon||مـ||ـمـ||ـم||m|
|نُون||nun||ن||Like the N in Noon||نـ||ـنـ||ـن||n|
|هَاء||hā̛||ه هـ||Like the H in He||هـ||ـهـ||ـه||h|
|وَاو||wāw||,||Like the W in the reaction of astonishment saying: WAW!||ـو||—-||ـو||W(aw, au, u)|
|يَاء||yā̛||ي||Like the Y in you||يـ||ـيـ||ـي||Y (ay, ai, ῑ)|
|Seen latter because it differs according to case and context||Latter will be discussed separately||أ ؤ||ـئـ||ئ||̛|
Now, you can deduce from the herein above Chart that Arabic letters are 29 with the letter hamza, sometimes is regarded as a separate Letter. Further, in the first column above, you can see some dashes or symbols on the Arabic Letter above or below them; they are called Arabic vowels (Described later).
Consider the following three Arabic Letters Characteristics:
a- Letters are connected to form words.
b- Words have vowels on it (described later).
c- Some letters have dots on it.
Do you know that:
1- Arabic structure is different in Alphabet from any other Language.
2- Arabic letters form words by connecting them together.
3- Arabic Alphabet is written and read from right to left.
4- Arabic Letters’ writing has three forms: initial, medial, and final i.e. different in shape according to their position.
5- Letters in isolation and final are mostly the same in shape.
6- Letters in the initial and medial positions are mostly the same in shape.
7- There are many print forms, types of fonts and writing forms for Arabic; yet most common of which is /̛ān-naskh/ (normal writing) النَسخ and /̛ār-ruqعa/ الرِقعة. An elementary/ intermediate Reader/ Learner is advised to use /̛ān-naskh/ writing form.
8- You can find the correct pronunciation in Arabic just from the spelling of the word which is considered a no-trouble-trick of Arabic pronunciation.
9- Arabic Letters can be divided into two groups according to their position
– Can’t be joined on the left side.
– Can be joined to a preceding letter but never to a following one.
– Then, all Arabic Letters in the Alphabet could be connected from both sides except the following mentioned Letters.(see table below)
– Change shape according to their position in the word.
|1st Group (Non-Connecting Letters)||1st Group Examples||2nd Group (Connecting Letters)||2nd Group Examples|
|عain ع||Refer to the three Arabic Letters’ Writing Forms (initial – medial – final)|
for “past life”
|ghain غ||Refer to the three Arabic Letters’ Writing Forms (initial – medial – final)|
|kāf ك||Refer to the three Arabic Letters’ Writing Forms (initial – medial – final)|
for “grey color”
|hā̛ ه هـ||Refer to the three Arabic Letters’ Writing Forms (initial – medial – final)|
|yā̛ ي||Refer to the three Arabic Letters’ Writing Forms (initial – medial – final)|
|Refer to the three Arabic Letters’ Writing Forms (initial – medial – final).
NB: this letter will be discussed later
10- Few Arabic Written Letters could be only differentiated by their dots :
11- There are Confusing Arabic Written Letters phonetically-wise:
|Light Sound in Pronunciation||Heavy Sound in Pronunciation|
|tā̛ ت||tā̛ ط|
|Dāl د||dād ض|
|zāl ذ||ẓā̛ ظ|
|sin س||sād ص|
|Kāf ك||qāf ق|
12- The Letter tā̛ ت; sometimes it is written like the letter hā̛ in its final form ـهyet with two dots above it ـة. This letter is mostly seen in its final position to indicate a feminine gender ending and is termed ” tā̛ Marbutah”.
13- The Letters fā̛ and qāf in Moroccan Written Arabic are different in their shape as seen below:
|Position in word||Isolated||Initial||Medial||Final|
|Form of the letter fā̛ in Moroccan Arabic||ڢ||ڢـ||ـڢـ||ـڢ|
|Form of the letter qāf in Moroccan Arabic||ڡ||ڧـ||ـڧـ||ڡ|