Note: Do not concern yourself with the vocabulary of

this lesson. Please focus on writing, connecting the letters and pronounciation.


1) Arabic is written from right to left. There are 29 characters in Arabic, starting with ‘alif, ending with Yaa .  ( ا ….. ي ), 26 consonants (حُرُوفٌ سَاكِنَة) and 3 vowels (حُرُوفُ عِلَّة ).


2) The first letter is ‘Alif (ا).The Álif in the beginning of the word is a Hamzah (ء) We will discuss all rules of the Hamzah in Lesson # 10.

Hamzah is pronounced as ‘A in ARM, or “I” in INDIA or “AU” as in AUSTRALIA

depends on its Auxiliary Signs


‘Alif is pronounced like an “a” in cat.

‘Alif is also pronounced as an “a’ in car when it is proceeded with one of the following

letters: ر , ص , ض , ط , ظ , ق

رَاهِبٌ , صَادِقٌ , ضَائِقٌ , طَاهِرٌ , ظَاهِرٌ , قَائِدٌ

3) Some letters, dots and their position determine their sounds.

ب ت ث ن     ر ز       د ذ     ص ض       ط ظ       ج ح خ


4)      There are three “Weak letters” (Harf Ájwaf) Pl. (Hurouf Jawfaa’) or (Harf ‘Illah) Pl. ( Hurouf ‘Illah” in Arabic :

ا و ي


5) The non-weak letters are called “Sound Letters”( Harf Sahih) Pl. ( Hurouf Sahiha). All letters other than the Weak Letters are Sound Letters .


6)      There are “Sun” Letters and there are “Moon Letters”.

The “Sun Letters”are:

ت ث   د ذ     ر ز   س ش   ص ض   ط ظ   ل   ن

When the Definite Article (أل) is added to a word which starts with a Sun Letter,

the letter (ل) will be pronounced the same as the “Sun Letter” – assimilated.

example:    نور

By adding the Definite Article :ألنُّورُ An -Nour.


The rest of the letters are “Moon Letters”.


7) “Seperate” and “Inseparable Letters”

The Six “Separates are: ا   د   ذ   ر   ز   و

These Letters are connected with the previous “Inseprabable Letter” or

stand alone. They cannot be connected to the following letters.

Examples: مالك   صدق   مذهب   شرق   مزح   شوق


8) Inseparable Letters come in four positions, initial, medial ,final and

isolated. ( Review The Table at the end of this lesson).


Example: The letter ب : isolated
The first letter ب  in its initial form
The second letter ب in its medial form
The Third letter ب  in its final form





All Arabic letters can be connected from both side except for the following letters :

ا د ذ ر ز و

These letters can be connected from the right side & never be connected from the left


To make this simple and easy, the following chart will show you how.


Isolated Final Medial Initial
شدا لنا قام أمر ا
باب ربيب صبر بنت ب
مات شمت دفتر ترف ت
ورث وريث يثرب ثقيل ث
مرج ثلج حجم جمل ج
مرح صلح محمل حمار ح
فرخ مسلخ مخمل خليل خ
جاد شديد هدر دفتر د
مسار سرير مرتع رغب ر
جهاز عزيز مزهر زفير ز
مقاس شمس مسار سمر س
نقاش جحش مشهد شبر ش
وقاص مقص مصهر صبر ص
مرض فض بضاعة ضبع ض
رباط بط مطعم طبل ط
عكاظ حافظ مظهر ظل ظ
سباع سميع معهد عليل ع
فراغ صبغ بغيض غفير غ
عفاف عفيف سفيه فقير ف
شباك سبك مكيدة كهف ك
جمال جميل جلب لهب ل
سهام سهم جمل منهل م
بنان تبن منبع نبع ن
جناة بيته سهاد هدير ه
مرو يربو مورد وصل و
الري مباني سياسة يسر ي


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