1 The Arabic Alphabet
2 The Arabic Consonants Diagram
5 One Direction Connectors, Emphatic Consonants, Short Vowels in Arabic
6 Nunation, The Shadda, The Sun Letters
7 The Moon Letters, Arabic Syntax, The Definite Article, Arabic Morphology
8 The Feminine Marker, The Personal pronouns
9 Countries, towns, villages, Definiteness in Arabic, The Nisba
10 Long vowel to a Diphthong, The Possessive pronouns, Sentences in Arabic
11 The Vocative Particle, The Idaafa, The Simple Idaafa
12 The Diptotes, Demonstrative Pronouns, The Equational Sentence جملة المبتدأ والخبر
13 Interrogative Particles, Indefinite Noun Subject, Negating Equational Sentences
14 The Subject markers, The Different Forms of ليس Interrogative Particles, The Idaafa (revisited)
15 Verb-Subject Agreement, Transitive Verbs, Helping Vowels
16 Object Pronouns, The wordما, The Cluster Buster
17 Negation of Past Tense Verbs, هُناكهُنا ,کُلُّ
18 The conjunction(و) , Definiteness (Revisited), Emphasis/Contrast
19 The Defacto Case of the Noun and Adjective, لماذا ,کم, Numbers, Plurals
20 Numbers (Revisited), أيَّة & أيُّ
21 Verb Object Pronouns,Object Pronouns of Prepositions
22 Prepositions, Feminine Sound Plurals, The Roots, The Verb Form Numbers
24 The Phonological Environment for Form VIII Verb, Non-human Plurals
25 Multiples of 10, The Conjunction لکن, The Singular Subject and its mood markers
26 The Present Tense of the Arabic verb, The Moods
27 Vowels of the Present Tense Verb
28 حتی, Negation of Present and Future Tense Verbs, The Sick Verbs
29 کُلُّ ، بعضُ, The Plural Vocatives, Masculine Sound Plural (Revisited)
30 Negation of the Future Tense (Revisited), Verbs with Two Objects, The Semi-Diptotes
31 کان& her Sisters, The Apposition ألبدل ,The Moody Present Tense
32. The Subjunctive Mood
33 ما ، أنْ(Revisited), The Nominalizer إنَّ& her Sisters
34 Adjectives (Revisited)كان& her Sisters (Revisited)
35 Phony/Fake Idaafa, The Perfect Particle قد, The Verbal Noun
36 Forms of the Verbal Nouns ألمصدر
37 The Relative Pronounsضمائر الوصل
38 ما(Revisited), The Cognate Accusative المفعول المطلق
39 The noun نفسُ , The Emphasisغير ، التوکيدThe Dropping of the Shadda of
أنَّand her sisters
40 The Imperative Mood,
41 The preposition مُنذ, The Apposition ألبدل (Revisted), Verbs of Beginning, The Active Participle
42 Derivation of the Active Participle, The nouns أَبٌand أخٌ
43 The Haal Construction الحال
44 The Passive Participle, Derivation of the Passive Participle
Negation Particle ليسَ (Revisited)
45 The Accusative of Distinction (Revisited)
46 Particles of Exception أدوات الاستثناء
47 The Accusative of Purpose, The Absolute Negation
48 The Long Vowels (Revisited)
50 The Pedagogy Section, The whole language and guided participatory approach
60 Functional Arabic Verbs list
1. The Arabic Alphabet.
The Arabic sources, as long as they do not attribute the invention of the Arabic script to Adam or Ishmael, tell us that the script had been introduced either from South Arabia region or from Mesopotamia (Iraq). Ibn Al-Nadim, for example, said that the people of Al-Hira, the capital of the Lakhmid dynasty in the Euphrates valley, used a form of Syriac cursive script which had developed into the Arabic alphabet.
Versteegh claims that the theory of Syriac origin has now been abandoned by most scholars. It seems much more likely to him that the Arabic alphabet is derived from a type of cursive Nabataean in Petra, Jordan. In the Aramaic script, from which Nabataean writing ultimately derived, there are no ligatures between letters. But in the cursive forms of the Nabataean script most of the features that characterize the Arabic script already appear. Versteegh adds that the elaboration of an Arabic script for texts in Arabic took place as early as the second century CE. This would mean that the development of the Arabic script as it is used in pre-Islamic inscriptions occurred largely independently from the later developments in Nabataean epigraphic script. The most important internal development in Arabic script is the systematic elaboration of connections between letters within the word, and the system of different forms of the letters according to their position within the word.
According to Siibawayh, the Arabic Alphabet is made of 29 letters, including 3 long vowels. He put them in the following order starting with the laryngeal and ending withlabial, representing the place of articulation along the vocal tract.
ء، ا، هـ ، ع ، ح ، غ ، خ ، ك ، ق ، ض،
ج ، ش ، ي ، ل ، ر ، ن ، ط ، د ، ت ، ص ،
ز ، س ، ظ ، ذ ، ث ، ف ، ب ، م ، و
Though Siibawayh listed 29 letters he concluded that in reality there were 35 sounds which are represented by those 29 letters. He explained that the recitation of the Quran and reading of poetry had necessitated the existance of those 6 additional sounds. The list included the ‘light Nuun’ النون الخفيفة, the ‘medial Hamza’ الهمزة التي بين بين, ‘Alif al-‘Imaala الالف التي تُمال إمالة شديدة ,’the J-sounded Shiin الشين التي کالجيم , the Z-sounded emphatic S’ الصاد التي تکون کالزاي, ‘the velarized ‘Alif’ ألف التفخيم in the language of Hijaaz in words like, الحياة والصلاة والزکاة.
Siibawayh went on to say that he could trace 42 sounds but the additional 7 sounds were not favorable in the recitation of the Quran and reading of poetry. Therefore, they were of less significance since their use is only limited to oral communication.
Al-Khalil Ibn Ahmed, who died in 791, grouped and put them in the following order:
ع ح هـ خ غ ، ق ك ، جشض ، صسز ، ط د ت ، ظ ث ذ ، ر د ن ، ف ب م ، و ا ي ء
The codification of the Qur’an was a crucial moment in the development of a written standard for the Arabic language. On a practical level, the writing-down of the holy text involved all kinds of decisions concerning the orthography of the Arabic script and elaboration of a number of conventions to make writing less ambiguous and more manageable than it had been in pre-Islamic Arabia.
Writing was not unknown in the peninsula in that period. But, for religious reasons, early Islamic sources emphasized the illiteracy of the Prophet Mohammed. The Prophet was أُميّ, someone who could not read nor write, and this was what made the revelation of the Qur’an and his recitation of the text a miracle.
There are clear indications that as early as the sixth century writing was fairly common in the urban centers of the peninsula, in Mekka and to a lesser degree in Medina. In the commercial society that was Mekka, businessmen must have had at their disposal various means of recording their transactions. There are references to treaties being written down and preserved in the Ka’ba in Mekka. Even the الرواة , the transmitters of poetry, sometimes relied on written notes, although they recited the poems entrusted to themorally. In the Qur’an, we find reflection of a society in which writing for commercial purposes was well established. In the second sura we find, for instance, detailed stipulations on the settlement of debts that include the exact writing-down of the terms.
In the biography of the Prophet, there are many references to his using scribes for his correspondence with Arab tribes and of writing treaties. In the accounts preserved by the historians, scribes and witnesses were mentioned and the Prophet signed those documents with his fingernail. Tradition has preserved the names of several scribes to whom Mohammed dictated messages, chief among them being Zayd Ibn Thabit.
Just as Christian monks of the Middle Ages spent lifetimes writing and illuminating religious manuscripts, their Arab and Muslim forebears contemporaries devoted their lives to producing elegantly handwritten copies of the Quran. In lieu of pictorial representation, which was frowned upon, calligraphy became notonly practical, but decorative, replacing design, painting and sculpture over a period of centuries. Later every caliph’s court employed these artists to draw up official documents, design official signatures and write out diplomatic correspondence.
The Arabs and Muslims of that time used interlaced geometric lines derivations from the Kufic style to adorn the walls of palaces and mosques, and the name of this style, arabesque, is a reminder of its cultural origins. Arabic calligraphy forms a primary
ornamentation of the Moorish palace of Alhambra in Granada, other citadels and
mosques of Moorish Spain speak eloquently of the golden ages of arabesque design and calligraphy.
The tracery and flowing patterns of the arabesque style, of calligraphy itself, imply a deeper, symbolic meaning stemming from ancient mystic beliefs. The designs endlessly reproducing themselves in apparently confused entanglements, but in reality flowing an ingenious system, are interpreted as symbolic of the order of nature which in perpetual change always repeats its cycles. The meanders are said to represent the continuity of life, the circle is held to stand for eternity and the rosettes and palmettos of design for birth and maturity.
Calligraphers today play an integral role in the Arab and Muslim Worlds. They not only copy Quranic verses and design phrases to be incorporated into building tiles and mosques , but they write nearly all newspaper and magazine headlines. Modern Arabic lends itself to the art, with its fluid design and diacritical markings.
2. The Arabic Consonatial System
2. The Arabic Consonatial System includes equal numbers of voiced versus voiceless, two nasals, three velarised, two lateral and one trill. Please note the following diagram:
Obstruents Sonorants (all voiced)
Voiceless voiced voiceless voiced nasal lateral trill
labial ب م
interdentalث ذ ظ
dento-alve. ر ل ن ض ص/ط ز/د س/ت
palatal ش ج
uvular ق/خ غ
Pharyngal ح ع
3. One Direction Connectors
3. One Direction Connectors. Of the 29 letters that make the Arabic Alphabet only six connect to the proceeding letter. Theseinclude two long vowels ا and و, and four consonants; ،د، ذر،ز. The rest connect to both sides.
4. Emphatic Consonants
4. Emphatic Consonants
4. Emphatic Consonants are a Semitic languages phenomenon. In Arabic there are four which include ص،ط،ظ ض ،. These consonants are articulated by a process of velarization: the tip of the tongue is lowered, the root of the tongue is raised towards the soft palate (velum), and in the process the timbre of the neighboring vowels is shifted towards a posterior realization.
5. Short Vowels in Arabic
5. Short Vowels in Arabic
The notation of the short vowels was a complicated problem. Abu Al-Aswad Al-Du’ali is credited with introduction of the system of colored dots in the writing system, and the terminology, “FatHa -َ, Dhamma -ُ, Kasra -ِ.”. But, a substantial improvement in the system of short vowels notation is usually attributed to the first lexicographer of the Arabic language, Al-Khalil Ibn Ahmed. He replaced the colored dots with specific shapes for the short vowels and the Shadda. With Al-Khalil’s reform, the system of Arabic orthography was almost the same ever since.
When used at the end of a definite noun or adjective they indicate case.
(a) -ُindicates Nominative case as in الکتابُ
(b) -َindicates Accusative case as in الکتابَ
(c) -ِ indicates Genitive case as inالکتابِ
As you might have noticed, Siibawaih did not include the short vowels. Neither did he talk about the diphthongs which are created every time you have a short vowel proceeding the long vowels وandيas inيَوم ، بَيت
6. Nunation. When a noun or an adjective is indefinite it carries Nunation, which is any of the short vowels plus /n/ sound.
(a)-ٌٌindicates Nominative case as in استاذةٌ
(b)-ً indicates Accusative case as in استاذةً
(c)-ٍ indicates Genitive case as in استاذةٍ
Please notice that the accusative Nunation -ً is always written on ( ا ) as in بيتاً. An exception to that is when the final consonant is either the feminine marker, Taa’ MarbuTa طالبة ً, or Hamza, سماءً
7. The Shadda is used when you have two identical consonants in a sequence, providing that the first has a Sukuun (zero vowel).
دَرْرَسَ is written as دَرَّسَ
8. Arabic The Sun Letters.
8. The Sun Letters. Due to a Phonological rule, the /ل/sound of the definite article is assimilated by any of the following sun consonants. Therefore, you need to use Shadda to replace the assimilated /ل/. The Sun Letters are:
ت ث د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ن الدَّرسُ
9. The Moon Letters have the definite article fully pronounced. They are:
ب ج ح خ ع غ ف ق ك ل م هـ الکتابُ
10. Arabic Syntax. According to Siibawayh words are noun إسم, verb فِعل, or particle حَرفintended for items which are neither noun nor verb. The basic difference between the three parts is the declension, الأعراب.In principle, only nouns and their adjectives have case endings to indicate their syntactic function in a sentence. This classification remained intact throughout the history of the Arabic grammatical traditions. The noun category was defined either as a word with certain syntactic characteristics such as its combinability with the definite article or as a word denoting an essence. Unlike the definition of the noun in Western grammar, the Arabic noun category includes adjectives, pronouns and even a number of prepositions and adverbs. The category of the verb was defined as a word that denotes an action and could be combined with some particles. The particle category includes the remaining words, and their function is to assist other words in their semantic function in the sentence.
11. The Definite Article in Arabic
11. The Definite Article in Arabic. A noun or adjective is made definite by prefixing (الـ) to it.
a. an old house بيتٌ قديمٌ
b. the old house البيتُ قديمٌ
12. The Arabic Morphology. At a very early date, the Arab grammarians invented a notation for the morphological patterns التصريف , which represented the three root radicals فعل For those grammarians, the task of morphology was the breakdown of words into radical and auxiliary consonants الزوائد. The grammarians set up methods to identify the radicals, of which the most important was الاشتقاق , the comparison of the form under scrutiny with morphologically-related words with the same semantic content. In line with the idea of the purity of the language, the semanticextension of an existing word was regarded as the most appropriate device for expansion of the lexicon. The model for this procedure was believed to have been given by the language of the Qur’an itself. Semantic extension became an accepted method of creating new terminology.
13. The Feminine Marker. As in many other languages, any Arabic noun/adjective has to be either masculine or feminine. With few exceptions, the general rule is to suffix the Taa’ MarbuTa (ـة/ة) to the masculine noun/adjective forms to derive the feminine ones. Examples are:
adjectives قديم/قديمة، جميل/جميلة ،جديد/جديدة
However, you need to remember that the Taa’ Marbuta (ـة/ة) is used in certain ancient Arabic male proper names such as:
Also, it is used on some broken plural patterns such as:
(giant )عملاق/عمالقة (professor/s)استاذ/استاذة
14. The Personal pronouns
14. The Personal pronouns are used to replace nouns. The following is a list of the singular (1-5) and plural forms (6-10):
. نحن6 . انا1
.انتم7 . انتَ2
8.انتنََّ . انتِ3
. هُم 9 . هو4
10. هُنَّ. هي5
15. All countries, towns, villages, etc. are treated as feminine. The exceptions to this rule are six Arab countries. These are:
الکويت , لُبنان , السودان , العراق , الأردُن , المغرب
16. Definiteness in Arabic. As you might have noticed in the phrases in point #11 above, adjectives in Arabic usually follow nouns and agree with them in terms of number, gender, case, and definiteness/indefiniteness.
a. small book کتابٌ صغيرٌ
b. the small book الکتابُ صغيرٌ
If an adjective completely agrees with its noun in every aspect, then you have a phrase, as in examples (a) and (b) below. However, if a noun (subject) is definite and its adjective (predicate) is indefinite you have a sentence, as in (c).
(a) a new house بيتٌ جديدٌ
(b) the new house البيتُ الجديدُ
(c) The house is newالبيتُ جديدٌ
17. The Nisba is an adjective that is created from a noun. The most common are those that refer to origin, nationality or country. The main device for making such adjectives from nouns is to suffix (يٌّ) for masculine and ( يَّة ٌ) for feminine to the noun. The noun must be first stripped off (a) the definite article, (b) feminine suffix, or (c) final position long vowel.
a. عراقيَّة،عراقيٌّ، (العراق)
b. سعوديَّة،سعوديٌّ، (السعودية)
c. سوريَّة،سوريٌّ، (سوريا)
18. Long vowel to a Diphthong. If any of the two long vowel و , اis proceeded by the short vowel –َ , the long vowel changes its character to a diphthong:
uu —> ou دَور،دور
ii —> eiدَين ،دين
19. The Possessive pronouns are suffixed to nouns to express possession and, consequently, make them definite.
my house, your (f) house, our house ، بَيتي، بَيتُكِ بَيتُنا
The following is a list of the personal pronouns (singular 1-5 and plural 6-10), and their corresponding possessive ones:
6. نحن ـنا 1. انا ـي
2. انتَ ـكَ 7. انتم ـکم
3. انتِ ـكِ 8. انتنَّ ـکنَّ
4. هو ـهُ 9. هم ـهُم
5. هي ـها 10. هنَّ ـهنَّ
20. Sentences in Arabic. The closestequivalent in Arabic grammar to the Western notion of a ‘sentence’ is جملة, a syntactically complete string of words that expresses a semantically complete message. In a sentence, there is always one head word that relays or determines the sentential functions resulting in markers in the form of case endings. According to the Western analysis of Arabic sentence structure , there are two
types of sentence: nominal and verbal. The Arab Grammarians differ and suggest three types.
(a) الجملة الفعليةThe verbal sentence is the basic sentence. Its order is (object)<— subject <— verb. In this type of sentence, a verb is marked by the gender of its subject.
(b) الجملة الاسميةThe Nominal Sentence is where the subject takes an initial position for emphatic purposes, followed by the verb, (object)<— verb <— subject. Consequently, the verb is marked by the number and gender of its subject.
(c) جملة المبتدأ والخبرThe Equational Sentence is made of a subject and a predicate without any expressed verb. The verb “tobe” is understood, predicate<— subject. Both the subject and the predicate have to be in the nominative case.
21. The Vocative Particleيا is limited for use with people only. The noun it is used with becomes definite, and therefore would carry a short vowel, not Nunation.
يا استاذ ُ! O, professor!
22. Idaafa الاضافة. The Idaafa structure is usually made of two or more nouns that are semantically related and in a sequence. Sometimes it sounds like a sort of “possessive” relationship, where English could use “of” or “‘s” .The first term of the Idaafa might be in any case and should not take Nunation or a definite article. The Second term of the Idaafa, on the other hand, is always in the genitive case and may take Nunation or a definite article.
the language professor:
استاذ ُ اللغةِ ، استاذ َ اللغةِ ، استاذِ اللغةِ
a language professor:
استاذ ُ لغةٍ ، استاذ َ لغةٍ ، استاذ ِ لغةٍ
If you encounter a cluster of nouns, then you should try to find out if it is an Idaafa structure.
23. The Simple Idaafa is made of two nouns. The Complex Idaafa is made of 3 or more. As expected, such sequences will create a Syntactical Environment where some nouns will play double grammatical functions.
a. the university building بناءُ الجامعةِ
b. the door of the university building بابُ بناءِ الجامعةِ
24. The Diptotes is a category of proper names of individuals, countries, cities, and towns. These nouns share the following characteristics:
a. They do not take the definite article.
b. In spite of the absence of the definite article, they do not take Nunation.
c. In the genitive case they take the accusative case marker instead.
a. Omer’s hobbies هواياتُ عمرَ
b. from Baghdad من بغدادَ
25. Demonstrative Pronouns. The use of”this/that & these/those”in Arabic is determined by the number and gender of the noun/adjective they introduce.
a. Singulars are (f) هذهِ، (f)، هذا ،تلك ذلكَ
b. Plurals are هؤلاءِ ، أولئكَ (no gender distinction)
26. The Equational Sentences
26. The Equational Sentences. As indicated earlier, an equational sentence in Arabic is a sentence without a verb. It consists of two parts, a subject and a predicate. The subject could be (a) a demonstrative pronoun, (b) a personal pronoun, or (c) a noun, while the predicate may be either of these, as well as (c) an adjective, (d) an adverb, or (e) a prepositional phrase.
(a) a subject demonstrative pronoun .هذهِ کليَّة ٌ
(b) a subject personal pronoun .أنا محمدٌ
(c) a subject noun الاستاذ ُ في الصفِّ.
(a) a predicate personal pronoun الاستاذ ُ أنا.
(b) a predicate noun .الاستاذ ُ محمدٌّ
(c) a predicate indefinite adjective الاستاذ ُ جديدٌ .
(d) a predicate adverb الاستاذ ُ هناكَ.
(e) a predicate prep. phrase الاستاذ ُ فِي المکتبِ.
A pronoun of separation could be added in example (b) above, where both the subject and the predicate are nouns.
الاستاذ ُ هو محمدٌّ.
27. Interrogative Particles. أ / هلare interrogative particles which are used to introduce questions that may be answered with either Yes or No.
أ ؟هل هذا مکتبٌ؟
Is this an office?
There is some phonological restriction on the use of أwhen the following word starts with a Hamza, such as:
أأنتَ جديدٌ هنا؟
It is better, in fact easier phonetically, to use هل
هل أنتَ جديدٌ هنا؟
28. Indefinite Noun Subject. You cannot start a sentence in Arabic with an indefinite noun subject. Under such circumstances, the subject needs to be moved inside the sentence and, therefore, will take the predicate position, not its syntactical function.
في الصفِّ طالباتٌ مصرياتٌ.
There are Egyptian students (f) in the classroom.
29. Negating Equational Sentences
29. Negating Equational Sentences. This type of Arabic sentence is negated by using ليسَ. Remember that the predicate noun or adjective has to be in the accuasative case.
The professor is not Egyptian. ليسَ الاستاذ ُ مصريَّاً.
30. The Subject markers for verbs in the past tense are suffixed to the verb stem in order to demonstrate subject/verb agreement.
هو (-َ) ، هي (ـَتْ) ، أنتَ (ـْتَ) ، أنتِ (ـْتِ) ، أنا (ـْتُ)
هُم (ـوا) ، هنَّ (-ْنَ) ، أنتم (ـْتُم) ، أنتُنَّ (ـْـتُنَّ) ، نحنُ (ـْـنا)
31. The Different Forms ofليسَ . When subject pronouns are attached to ليسَ, it will take the following forms:
أنا لستُ نحنُ لسنا
أنتَ لستَ أنتم لستُم
أنتِ لستِ أنتُنَّ لستُنَّ
هو ليسَ هم ليسوا
هي ليسَتْ هُنَّ لسنَ
32. Interrogative Particles أ / هل (revisited)
32. Interrogative Particles أ / هل (revisited). The Arabic language does not tolerate the use of هل with any form of ليسَ in order to make a question. You have to stick with . أ
أليسَ الطالبُ في المکتبةِ؟
Isn’t the student (m) in the library?
33. The Idaafa (revisited). Arabic grammar does not allow anything to be placed between the first and second term of Idaafa except for a demonstrative pronoun. Therefore,
(a) the student’s book کتابُ الطالبةِ
is correct and
(b) this student’s book کتابُ هذهِ الطالبةِ
is also correct. But,
(c) کتابُها الطالبةِ
is incorrect due to the fact that the possessivepronoun ( ـها ) is inserted between the first and second terms ofIdaafa.
34. Verb-Subject Agreement
34. Verb-Subject Agreement. A verb that proceeds its subject is marked by gender only. If it follows its subject it should be marked by both number and gender.
The students (f) went to the dorm.ذهبتِ الطالباتُ الی السکن ِ.
The students (f) went to the dorm. الطالباتُ ذهبنَ الی السکن ِ.
35. A Transitive Verb (a) requires an object; intransitive (b) does not.
a. I ate an apple. أکلتُ تُفاحة ً.
b. I went to the university. ذهبتُ إلی الجامعةِ.
36. Helping Vowels replace the Zero Vowel when the following word starts with Hamza. Therefore, an environment for using a helping vowel will be created every time one uses a definite article. The purpose of this Phonological Rule is to provide a smooth transition from one word to the next. Generally speaking, this transition is governed by the following rules.
a. If the proceeding vowel is FatHa the helping vowel is Kasra.
Is the book new? (هَلْ ) هَل ِ الکتابُ جديدٌ؟
b.If the proceeding vowel is Kasra, the helping vowel is FatHa.
This pencil is from the office. مِنَ المکتَبِ. هذا القلمُ (مِنْ)
c. If the proceeding vowel is Dhamma, the helping vowel is Dhamma.
لماذا (قابَلتـُمْ) قابَلتـُمُ المديرَةَ؟
Why did you (m, pl) meet the director (f)?
37. Object Pronouns. You remember what was mentioned earlier that possessive pronouns are suffixed to nouns. Now, I would like to remind you that object pronouns are suffixed to the verbs. Please, notice the difference of the pronouns in the following sentences:
a. (Possessive Pronoun) کتابُها علی الطاولةِ.
b. (Object Pronoun) شاهدتُها في السوقِ.
38. The word ما h as different meanings, depending on the context. It could mean “what,” and in this case you are expected to have a demonstarative pronoun or a definite noun following it.
What is this? ما هذا؟
What is his job? ما عملـُهُ؟
When the question wordما is followed by a verb in the past tense, it changes its own function to a negation particle.
I did not eat at this restaurant. ما أکلتُ في هذا المطعم.
39. The Cluster Buster
39. The Cluster Buster. Generally speaking, Arabic does not tolerate three or more consonant clusters. The common practice to deal with such a phonological environment is to insert a short or long vowel in between. We mentioned earlier the use of the short helping vowel. A good example for the use of a long vowel is when we have an attached object pronoun for transitive verbs which haveأنتم as a subject. Notice the use of the long vowel ( و ) to break the cluster in the following sentences:
شاهدتـُموها في السوق ِ.
You (mp) saw her in the market.
قابلتـُمونا في المقهی.
You (mp) met us in the cafe.
علمتـُموهُ العربية َ.
You (mp) taught him Arabic.
40. Negation of Past Tense Verbs. There are two methods to negate the verbs in past tense. The easy way is by using ماbefore the verb. The other is to use the negation particle لم¸ followed by the jussive form of the verb.
We didn’t watch/see this movie. ما شاهَدنا هذا الفلمَ.
لم نُشاهِدْ هذا الفلمَ.
41. هُنا / هُناكَare nouns that can also be used as adverbs.
(a) There is a student (f) in the classroom. هُناكَ طالبة ٌ في الصفِّ.
(b) The new book is here. الکتابُ الجديدُ هُنا.
42. کُلُّ is a noun that will be a first term of Idaafa and could mean “every/each” if it is followed by a singular indefinite noun. If the singular noun is definite, کُلُّwould mean “all/whole”. If it is used after a noun, then it should carry its corresponding pronoun suffix and its function becomes emphatic.
a. I read every book! قرأتُ کُلَّ کتابٍ.
b. I read the whole book. قرأتُ کُلَّ الکتابِ.
c. I read the book, all of it. قرأتُ الکتابَ کـُلـَّهُ
However, if کـُلُّis followed by a plural noun, that noun should be definite and both create Idaafa. Check the following sentences:
حضرَ کلُّ الموظفينَ
All the employees (m) came.
حضرَ کلُّ موظفي المکتبِ.
All the office employees (m) came.
43. The conjunction(و) changes to (أو ) when the sentence is negated.
I like coffee and tea. أحِبُّ القهوةَ والشايَ.
Neither do I like coffee nor teaلا أحِبُّ القهوةَ أوالشايَ. .
44. Definiteness in Arabic (Revisited). You should know by
now that a noun or an adjective in Arabic is made definite by one of the following methods:
a. a definite article
b. following the vocative particle
c. a possessive pronoun
d. by relating it to a definite noun in Idaafa structure
45. Emphasis/Contrast. Since verb form indicates the person,
gender, and number of the subject any use of a subject pronoun is considered redundant. If, however, you want to emphasize or contrast two objects Arabic allows you to use the subject pronoun in such a linguistic environment.
أنا ذهبتُ إلی المکتبةِ وهُم ذهبوا إلی المطعم ِ.
I went to the library and they went to the restaurant.
46. The Defacto Case of the Noun and Adjective in Arabicis Nominative. A noun case is changed to accusative if it becomes an object of a verb (There are other cases where a noun should carry the accusative case marker. Check Kaana & Inna points). A noun is said to be in the genitive case if it follows a preposition
or it is a second term of Idaafa. No matter what is the case of the noun, the adjective will follow, marked by the same case.
The Egyptian man is in his house. الرجُلُ المِصريُّ في بَيِتِهِ.
I saw the Egyptian man. شاهدتُ الرجُلَ المصريَّ.
I said hello to the Egyptian man. سلـَّمتُ علی الرجُل ِ المصريِّ.
47.لِماذا(why) has to be followed by a verb because it asks about action/activity (verbs usually express those).
Why did you (m) go back to the room? لِماذا رجعتُ إلی الغرفةِ؟
Arabic How many
48.When it means“how many,” کَم has to be followed by an indefinite noun, in the accusative case. Unlike English, it has to be singular. Arab grammarians call it a particle of “The Accusative of Distinction,” or تَمييز.
How many students are there in the class? کم طالِباً في الصفِّ؟
49. Numbers that proceed nouns should take the opposite gender
of those nouns. Furthermore, they should carry the marker that is determined by their grammatical function in the sentence. The noun itself has to be in the genitive case because this combination will create an Idaafa.
a. I met five students (f).قابلتُ خَمسَ طالباتٍ.
b. Five students (m) came. خَمسَةُ طلابٍ. حضَرَ
50. Plurals. There are three types of plural in Arabic:
a. The Masculine Sound plural is created by ( ونَ ) suffixed to the noun in the nominative case, and ( ينَ) in both genitive and accusative cases.
teachers (m) مُدرِّسونَ ، مُدرِّسينَ ، مُدرِّسينَ
b. The Feminine sound plural is created by dropping the Taa’ MarbuuTa and replacing it with ( اتٌ) for the nominative case and (اتٍ ) for the accusative & genitive cases.
teachers مُدرِّساتٌ ، مُدرِّساتٍ ، مُدرِّساتٍ
c. The Broken plural is an irregular form. Even though several nouns may exhibit the same “broken” pattern, one has to learn the words individually.
dog(s), cat(s) کلبٌ / کِلابٌ ، قِطـٌّ / قِططـٌّ
51. Numbers (Revisited). It was mentioned earlier that numbers that proceed nouns should take the opposite gender of those nouns. An additional rule which you need to consider is that unlike English, the noun has to be in plural only between 3-10. After that the noun has to be singular in the accusative case. This is another example of تمييز“accusative of distinction.”
إشتريتُ خمسة َ عَشرَ قلماً.
I bought fifteen pencils.
52. أيَّـة ُ / أيُّboth mean “which” (as a question word). The first is used for masculine while the second is used for feminine. The noun which follows either one of them has to be in the genitive case. The implication is that the two nouns create Idaafa. Please notice that أيَّـة ُ / أيُّcarry the vowel of the original case of the noun you ask about.
أيَّـة ُ مَجلـَّةٍ هذهِ؟
a. Which magazine (subject-nominative) is this?
أيَّ طالبٍ شاهدتِ؟
b. Which student (m) (object-accusative) did you (f) see?
إلی أيـَّةِ مدينةٍ سافرتَ؟
c. To which city (object of a prep.-genitive) did you travel?
53. Verb Object Pronouns. We mentioned earlier that object pronouns are suffixed to the transitive verbs.
شاهدَها في مَحطةِ القطاراتِ.
He saw her at the train station.
54. Object Pronouns of Prepositions. The object pronouns for transitive verbs are the same for the intransitive verbs which take prepositions. An exception to this is the object pronoun for the first person, أنا , which becomes (ي) for some prepositions.
ذهَبَتْ معي إلی السوق ِ.
She went with me to the market.
Please remember that the object pronouns in such linguistic environment are attached to prepositions, not the verbs.
The list of verb and preposition object pronouns suffixes includes the following:
Object Subject Independent
1. أنا ـتُ ـني / (ي)
2. أنتَ ـتَ ـكَ
3. إنتِ ـتِ ـكِ
4. هو -َ ـهُ
5. هي ـتْ ـها
6. نحن ـنا ـنا
7. أنتم ـتُم ـکُم
8. أنتُنَّ ـتُنَّ ـکُنَّ
9. هُم ـوا ـهُم
10. هُنَّ ـنَ ـهُنَّ
55. Prepositions which end with Alif MaQsura, (ی) will reclaim their original (ي ) form when any object pronoun is attached to them. Check the following example:
سَلـَّمَ عليها عندما شاهدَها في مَحطةِ القطاراتِ.
He greeted her when he saw her at the train station.
56. Feminine Sound Plurals take the genitive marker for the accusative case.
شاهدنا الطالباتِ في مَکتبِ البريدِ.
We saw the students (f) at the post office.
57. The Roots. Most Arabic words can be attributed to some 3-letter root, where
57. The Roots radicals are referred to by means of a prototypical root, فَعَلَ. فstands for the first radical, عfor the second, and لfor the third. This 3-letter root form is the entry you need to use when you want to check out any word in any Arabic dictionary. You should know by now how to dissect words in order to get to that root. Mainly, you need to drop off any gender and number markers of the noun/adjective. In case of the verbs, you need to drop off any subject, tense, and mood markers.
58. The Verb Form Numbers system is quite old, going back to the earliest European Arabic grammars such as that of Guillaume Postal, Paris, ca. 1538 and Pedro de Alcala’ ca. 1613. Their order ofnumbering is the same as that which we are familiar with today. Another grammar was published in Rome ca. 1622 which uses the numbering system but has forms II and IV switched. Erpenius’ grammar was only superseded in 1810 by the grammar of De Sacy, who used the same system which has been in vogue ever since. Incidentally, the numbering system was also used in older grammars of Hebrew, but seems to have fallen out of usage.
The system, an extremely useful mnemonic device is not entirely unrelated to the traditional work of صَرف, for it follows the order of المجرَّد and المزيد .The use of numbering, however, is the Latin, European innovation which might have been a claque on some aspect of the study of Latin grammar. At the very least, it is well known that Latin grammar traditionally numbers the different classes of conjugation. De Sacy is careful to make clear in his presentation the verb forms that they fall into groups of
المزيد بحرف ، المزيد بحرفين، المزيد بثبلثةِ حُروف
Most verbs in Arabic can be classified into ten forms. These forms are:
1. فَعَلَ دَرَسَ 6. تَفاعَلَ تَراسَلَ
2. فَعَّلَ دَرَّسَ 7. إنفَعَلَ إنقَلـَبَ
3. فاعَلَ شاهَدَ 8. إفتَعَلَ إرتَفَعَ
4. أفعَلَ أقبَلَ 9. إفعَلَّ إحمَرَّ
5. تَفَعَّلَ تَحَدَّثَ 10. إستَفعَلَ إستَخدَمَ
Furthermore, each transitive pattern has an automatic passive counterpart where the stem short vowel Ftha and Kasra are replaced by Dhamma and Kasra.
To learn more about these forms, please check the computer program ARAFORM. You will find it and other programs at the following website:
59. The Phonological Environment for Form VIII Verb. The
characteristic feature of Form VIII is the reflexive affix / ـتـَ/ which is inserted after the first radical of the root. That / ـتـَ/ will create the environment for a phonological rule of assimilation that applies itself if the first radical is a dental stop or fricative. The result is that the inserted / ـتـَ/ is assimilated. Involved here are the following consonants:
ت ث د ذ ز ص ض ط ظ
Compare the following examples:
(a) a fully pronounced / ـتـَ/ جَمَعَ إجتَمَعَ
(b) a fully assimilated / ـتـَ/ زادَ – إزدادَ ، دَعا – إدَّعی
Luckily, Arabic does not have many verbs of this type. However, you need to remember the three following related phonological rules:
(1). After the emphatic consonants ص ض طthe inserted / ـتـَ/ becomes emphatic ط,as in صَدَمَ – إصطدَمَ
(2). After the fricativesت ظthere is a complete assimilation and the resultant double consonant is written with Shadda, as in ظَلـَمَ – إظـَّلـَمَ
(3). If the first radical of the verb is (و) as in وَصَلَ , the (و) will be completely assimilated by the inserted / ـتـَ/, and thus the use of the Shadda would be required. Consider the following example:
وَصَلَ – إتـَّصَلَ
60. Non-human Plurals are treated as feminine singular in terms
of adjective, pronoun, and subject-verb agreement.
السيَّاراتُ جديدةٌ. هي جميلة ٌ أيضاً.
The cars are new. They are pretty, too.
61. Multiples of 10 do not show gender distinction. Consider the following sentence:
کتبتُ عشرينَ رسالة ً وقرأتُ عشرينَ کتاباً.
I wrote twenty letters and I read twenty books.
62.The Conjunction لکنَّis usually followed by a noun or a pronoun suffix in the accusative case. On the other hand, لکنْtolerates the use of verbs after it. Both are used to make compound sentences and mean “but.”
لا أحبُّ القهوةَ لکنْ أحِبُّ الحليبَ.
I don’t like coffee but I like milk.
البرنامجُ جميلٌ لکنـَّهُ طويلٌ.
The program is beautiful but it is long.
63. The Singular Subject and its mood markers for verbs in the present tense are prefixed and suffixed to the verb stem. This is necessary to demonstrate subject/verb agreement. These singular markers are:
أنا أنتِ أنتَ هي هو
Subject markers أ تـَ …ـيـ تـَ تـَ تـَ
Mood markers -ُ ـنَ -ُ -ُ -ُ
64. The Plural Subject and mood markers. It was mentioned above that for verbs in the present tense subject and mood markers are prefixed and suffixed to the verb stem in order to demonstrate subject/verb agreement. The same is true with plural markers, which are:
أنتـُم هُنَّ هُم أنتـُنَّ نحنُ
Subject marker نـَ تـَ ..ـْنَ تـَ …و يـَ ..ـنَ يَـ …
Mood markers ـنَ none ـنَ none -ُ
65. The Present Tense of the Arabic verb requires that you prefix the subject marker and suffix the mood marker to the stem of the verb. However, this is not as easy as it sounds, especially for Form I. The vowels you need to add are going to be a little bit challenging. Note the following paradigm.
1.1. فـَعَلَ – يَفعَلُ ذَهَبَ- يَذهَبُ
2.1. فـَعَلَ – يَفعِلُ رَجَعَ – يَرجِعُ
3.1. فـَعَلَ – يَفعُلُ کـَتـَبَ – يَکتـُبُ
4.1. فـَعِلَ – يَفعَلُ شَرِبَ – يَشرَبُ
2. فـَعَّلَ – يُفـَعِّلَ دَرَّسَ – يُدرِّسُ
3. فاعَلَ – يُفاعِلُ شاهَدَ – يُشاهِدُ
4. أفعَلَ – يُفعِلُ أقبَلَ – يُقبـِلَ
5. تـَفـَعَّلَ – يَتـَفـَعَّـلُ تـَحَدَّثَ – يَتـَحَدَّثُ
6. تـَفاعَلَ – يَتـَفاعَلُ تـَقابَلَ – يَتـَقابَلُ
7. إنفـَعَلَ – يَنفـَعِلُ إنصَرَفَ – يَنصَرِفُ
8. إفتـَعَلَ- يَفتـَعِلُ إعتـَمَدَ – يَعتـَمِدُ
9. إفعَلَّ – يَفعَلُّ إحمَرَّ – يَحمَرُّ
10. إستـَفعَلَ – يَستـَفعِلُ إستـَخدَمَ – يَستـَخدِمُ
66. The Moods. The Present tense verb in Arabic has three moods.
1. Indicative is the regular present tense verb.
تـَسکـُنُ أختي في هذهِ الشقـَّةِ.
My sister lives in this apartment.
2. Subjunctive is used when there is doubt, fear, hope, purpose, obligation, negated future, etc.
لنْتـَسکـُنَ أختي في هذهِ الشقـَّةِ.
My sister will not live in this apartment.
3. Jussive is used in negating the past tense with the particle لمْ
لم تـَسکـُنْ أختي في هذهِ الشقـَّةِ.
My sister did not live in this apartment.
67. Vowels of the Present Tense Verb. There are three important vowels you need to take note of when you conjugate any Arabic verb from past tense to the present tense. These include:
1. The Subject marker vowel, which is the first vowel of the verb;
2. The Stem Vowel, which is the vowel that goes on the second radical/consonant of the root;
3. The Mood Marker Vowel, which is the last vowel of the verb.
The following is a chart of these various vowels for the ten forms of the Arabic verb system:
Form Indicative Mood Stem Subject
I Dhamma unpredictable Fatha
II Dhamma Kasra Dhamma
III Dhamma Kasra Dhamma
IV Dhamma Kasra Dhamma
V Dhamma Fatha Fatha
VI Dhamma Fatha Fatha
VII Dhamma Kasra Fatha
VIII Dhamma Kasra Fatha
IX Dhamma Fatha Fatha
X Dhamma Kasra Fatha
68.حتـَّی means “until” when it is followed by a verb in the past tense. When it is followed by a verb in the present tense it will express purpose and, therefore, means “in order to/so that.” In that case, the verb should be in the subjunctive mood.
(a) سَکنَ هنا حتـَّی حضرتْ عائلتـُهُ.
(b) إنتـَقـَلـَتْ إلی القاهرةِ حتـَّی تدرُسَ هَناكَ.
69. Negation of Present and Future Tense Verbs.
Verbs in the present tense are negated by لا. Verbs which express future tense are negated by لـنْ after dropping the future marker prefix ( سـَ ). Please remember that the verb has to be changed to the Subjunctive Mood.
a. We don’t watch/see this movie. لا نـُشاهِدُ هذا الفلم.
b. We will not watch/see this movie. لـن نـُشاهِدَ هذا الفلم.
70. The Sick Verbs الافعال المعتلة . Any verb that has a long vowel as one of the three radicals in its root is called a “sick verb.” These long vowels will go through a change when the verb is used in the present tense. Consequently, there are three types.
a. Assimilated, if the first radical of the verb is a long vowel such as:
وَصَلَ / يَصِلُ“to arrive.”
b. Hollow, when the second radical position is occupied by a long vowel such as:
سارَ / يَسيرُ“to walk.”
c. Defective, when the third radical position is occupied by a long vowel such as:
دَعا / يَدعو“to invite.”
To check how these irregular verbs are conjugated to the various pronouns for both present & past tenses, please
check the computer program at the website address given earlier.
71. کـَلُّ ، بَعضُare nouns and when used before another noun they create an Idaafa (a). If, however, they are used after a noun, they will be emphatic for that proceeding noun, and will carry its case and its identical pronoun reference (b).
a. تـَعلـَّمنا کـُلَّ جُملِ الدَّرسِ.
b. تـَعلـَّمنا جُمَلَ الدَّرسِ کـُلـَّها/ کـُلـَّهُ.
72. The Plural Vocatives أيـُّها and . أيـَّتـُها You have already been introduced to the vocative يا, which is used with singular nouns and, therefore, could be followed by a proper noun, a title, or an Idaafa, regardless of the gender.
يا سميرُ! ، يا أستاذةُ! ، يا مَديرَ المکتـَبِ!
The plural forms show gender distinction and, therefore, Arabic has أيـُّهاfor the masculine and أيـَّتـُهاfor the feminine. The pluralvocative should be followed by a noun with the definite article in the nominative case.
أيُّها الطلاَّبُ! أيَّتـُها الطالباتُ!
73. It was mentioned earlier that the Masculine Sound Plural (MSP) is formed by suffixing ( ونَ ) for the nominative case, and ( ـينَ ) for the accusative and genitive cases, to the singular form of the noun.
موَظـَّفٌ – موَظـَّفونَ / موَظـَّفينَ
The final ( ـنَ ) of this kind of plural is dropped when such a noun takes the position of a first term ofIdaafa. This rule applies regardless of the case of the noun, whether it is nominative, accusative, or genitive.
موَظـَّفو الجامعةِ / موَظـَّفي الجامعةِ
the university employees (N and A & G)
74. Negation of the Future Tense (Revisited). When the future verb is marked by ( سَـ ) the negation particle that is used should be لنْ followed by the verb in the subjunctive mood.
لنْ أذهَبَ إلی البَيتِbecomes سأذهَبُ إلی البَيتِ
If the future tense is marked by سَوفَ then such a construction may be made negative by placing لاbefore the imperfect indicative verb.
سوفَ لا أذهبُ إلی البيتِbecomes سوفَ أذهبُ إلی البَيتِ
75. Verbs with Two Objects. Among verbs that take two objects is a group that means “to give/to grant.” Consider the following example:
أعطتِ المرأةُ بِنتـَها هديَّة ً.
The woman gave her daughter a present.
The direct object is هديَّة and the indirect object is بِنتـَها
76. The Semi-Diptotes is another category that includes colors, the elative patterns of adjectives and some broken plural patterns. They behave like Diptotes and, therefore, they do not take Nunation and they take the accusative marker for the genitive case.
The ruler is on a green book. ألمِسطرَةُ علی کتابٍ أخضرَ.
They (m) study in private schools. يُدَرِّسونَ في مَدارسَ خاصَّةٍ.
I talked to a girl who was taller than her sister.تکلـَّمتُ مع بنتٍ أطولَ من أختِها.
However, they can take the definite article. When they do, they behave like regular nouns or adjectives.
ألمِسطرَةُ علی الکتابِ الأخضرِ.
يُدَرِّسونَ في المَدارس ِ الخاصَّةِ.
.تکلـَّمتُ مع البنتِ الأطول ِ من أختِها
77.کانَ& her Sisters (أصبحَ ، بَقيَ ، ما زالَ ، ظلَّ ، صارَ ، لـَيسَ), which usually go with equational sentences, leave the subject in its nominative case but change the inflected predicate to the accusative case.
The food was delicious. کان الأکلُ لذيذاً.
The food is not delicious. لـَيسَ الأکلُ لذيذاً.
You know that equational sentences refer to present time. The equivalent in past time is expressed by using the verbکانَ .
78. Nouns are said to be in Apposition البَدَلto another noun when you can drop off any of them without affecting the semantics ofthe sentence. Grammatically and logically speaking, both of the nouns should carry the same case marker.
کانَ الخليفة ُ عُمَرُ عادلاً.
The Caliph Omar was fair.
79. The Moody Present Tense. Present tense verbs are said to be in the Indicative Mood. However, verbs which express hope, desire, purpose, like, dislike, doubt, fear, uncertainty, obligations, etc., change their mood from the regular Indicative to the Subjunctive. That also requires that they should follow one of the Subjunctive particles, such as . لکي ، کيلا ، لـِ ، أن ، لـَن ، حتـَّی ، کي Note the purpose expressed in the following sentence:
ذهبتُ إلی المکتبَةِ لأدرُسَ هُناكَ .
I went to the library so that I would study there.
80. In the Subjunctive Mood of the Arabic verb, the final (نَ ) of the third person masculine plural is dropped and replaced by a silent ( ا) .
they (m) go يَذهبونَ
in order for them (m) to go لِيذهبوا
In addition to ( لِـ),other particles of subjunctivity which express purpose/intention and, thus, mean “in order to, so that.”include حتـَّی ، کي ، لکي.
سافروا إلی مصرَ لِيدرسوا هُناكَ .
They (m) traveled to Egypt in order to study there.
The original form of the underlined verb is (يدرسونَ)
Please note that the final (نَ ) of the second person feminine singular should also be dropped, but without replacement with silent ( ا ).
you (f.s.) study تـَدرُسينَ
so that you (f.s.) study لکي تـَدرَسي
سافرتِ إلی مصرَ لکي تـَدرُسي هُناكَ .
You (f.s.) traveled to Egypt in order to study there.
The original form of the underlined verb is (تَدرُسينَ)
81. The most common subjunctive particle in Arabic is probably أنْ , which usually sits between two verbs referring to the same or a different person, and thus, functioning something like theinfinitive in English. If you examine the sentence carefully, you will notice that أنْ introduces a subordinate clause which functions as an object for the main verb.
اُريدُ أنْ أذهَبَ إلی المصرفِ.
I want to go to the bank.
82. It has been mentioned earlier that ما can be used as a question word and as a negation particle for the verb in past tense. In addition, it can be used to be as a part of a nominalizer as in:
قابلتـَهَ عندما سَکنَ في هذا البَيتِ.
I met him when he lived in this house.
83. The Nominalizer إنَّ& her Sisters (لعلَّ ، أنَّ ، کأنَّ ، لکنَّ ، لأنَّ ) change the subject nominative case marker to the accusative but they leave the predicate in its nominative case. By the way, أنَّ / إنَّare called “Nominalizers” because they introduce nominal sentences.
إنَّ الأکلَ لذيذ ٌ.
In fact, the food is delicious.
قالتْاُختي أنَّ الأکلَ لذيذ ٌ.
My sister said that the food was delicious.
لکنَّ الأکلَ لذيذ ٌ.
… but the food was delicious.
إنَّ is only used in the initial position of a sentence, and following any form of قالَ. Anywhere else you have to use أنَّ. Its meaning, therefore, changes from “indeed/in fact” to “that”. Remember that all these particles should be followed by nouns or attached pronoun suffixes. Also notice that إنَّand her sisters should be followed by the subject or its corresponding attached pronoun.
84. Adjectives. We learned earlier that adjectives in Arabic are usually placed after the noun they modify, and therefore, they agree in terms of number, gender, definiteness/indefiniteness, and case with that noun. The comparative and superlative degrees of the adjectives are formulated following the pattern [Af’alu] ( أفعَلُ ). They should be treated as Diptotes (no Nunation & accusative marker for genitive case).
Therefore, قَريبٌ——–> أقربُ
and جَميلٌ ——–> أجملُ
a. With comparative adjectives, you need to use the preposition (مِنْ) to compare the two nouns, as in:
My house is smaller than hers. بَيتي أصغرُ مِنْ بَيتِها
b. In superlative, the most common method is to place the adjective before the noun, as in:
بَيتي أصغرُ بُيتٍ في القريةِ.
My house is the smallest (house) in the village
Please remember that the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives are gender blind. Therefore, أصغرُcan be used for feminine and masculine nouns as well.
85. کانَ& her Sisters (Revisited). We said earlier that کانَ& her Sisters are used with equational sentences. However, they can tolerate the use of verbs after them. That verb has to be in the present indicative form, as in:
کانـَتْ تـَعملُ في مَکتـَبـِها.
She was working in her office.
If the subject is expressed, it should be placed between کانَ& her sisters and the verb.
کانـَتِ الأستاذةُ تـَعملُ في مَکتـَبـِها.
The professor was working in her office.
An exception to this rule is when you want to topicalize the subject, and that simply means that you want to emphasize it.
الأستاذة ُ کانـَتْ تـَعملُ في مَکتـَبـِها.
86. Phony/Fake Idaafa. You might have noticed that the noun which follows the adjective that is in the superlative form structure is in the genitive case.
بَيتي أصغرُ بَيتٍ في القريَةِ.
The reason is that this combination creates the Syntactical Environment for Idaafa. Because the components of this structure are not limited to the usual nouns (the first term is in fact an adjective) Arab Grammarians tend to call this Phony/Fake Idaafa.
87. If the Perfect Particle قدis used with a verb in the past tense, then both are translated as a Present Perfect (has/have + Participle).
She has worked in this factory. قد عَمِلتْ في هذا المَصنع ِ.
When this particle is used with کانَand a verb, then the whole phrase is translated as a Past Perfect (had+participle).
کانَ صديقي قد زارَني قـَبلَ سَنـَةٍ.
My friend had visited me a year ago.
88. The Verbal Noun المَصدَر is a noun that is derived from a verb. Therefore, it acts like a noun, as in the following examples:
a. a subject العَمَلُ في هذهِ الشرکةِ صَعبٌ.
b. an object اُحِبُّ القراءَةَ.
c. a first term of Idaafa بِناءُ المَدارس ِ شيءٌ جَيِّدٌ.
d. a second term of Idaafe کِتابُ القراءَةِ جَديدٌ.
e. a predicate هوايَتي هي الطـَّبخُ.
A verbal noun derived from a transitive verb does sometimes act like that verb and would take an object.
أعجَبَني تـَدريسُ الأستاذِ العربيَّة َ.
Arabic Forms Of Verbal Nouns
89. Forms of Verbal Nouns. Action/activity is expressed by verbs and verbal nouns. Like other languages, the verbal nouns in Arabic indicate that action/activity, and behave like regular nouns. The
following chart shows the various ways of derivation according to the forms:
Verb Form Verbal Noun Verb Example Verbal Noun Example
I. فـَعَلَ unpredictable any verb unpredictable
II. فـَعَّلَ تـَدريسٌ دَرَّسَ تـَفعيلٌ
III. مُشاهَدَة ٌ شاهَدَ مُفاعَلـَة ٌ فاعَلَ
IV. إعجابٌ أعجَبَ إفعالٌ أفعَلَ
Vتـَحَدُّثٌ تـَحَدَّثَ تـَفـَعُلٌ تـَفـَعَّلَ .
VI. تـَراسُلٌ تـَراسَلَ تـَفاعُلٌ تـَفاعَلَ
VII. إنصِرافٌ إنصَرَفَ إنفِعالٌ إنفـَعَلَ
VIII. إستِلامٌ إستـَلـَمَ إفتِعالٌ إفتـَعَلَ
IX. إحمِرارٌ إحمَرَّ إفعِلالٌ إفعَلَّ
X. إستـِخدامٌ إستـَخدَمَ إستِفعالٌ إستـَفعَلَ
90. The Dropping of the Shadda of إنَّand her sisters لکنَّ ، کأنَّ ، أنَّ. Arab grammarians call this تـَخفيفُ النون. It was mentioned earlier that these particles change the subject’s vowel marker from nominative to accusative case. When the Shadda is eliminated, the subject maintains its nominative case marker (a). Furthermore, these particles will tolerate the use of verbs (b) after them.
سَمِعتُ أنَّ الأستاذة َ قادِمَة ٌ.
(a) سَمِعتُ أنْالأستاذة ُ قادِمَة ٌ.
I heard that the professor (f) is coming.
سافـَرَتْ جارتي إلی بغدادَ لکنَّ زَوجَها سافـَرَ إلی القاهِرَةِ.
(b) سافـَرَتْ جارتي إلی بغدادَ لکنْ سافـَرَ زَوجُها إلی القاهِرَةِ.
My neighbor travelled to Baghdad, but her husband travelled to Cairo.
Arabic The Relative Pronouns
91. The Relative Pronouns ضَمائرَ الوصلare used to introduce subordinate adjectival clauses and therefore create complex sentences. The choice of such pronouns depends on the antecedent’s number and gender.
الذي is used for masculine singular.
التيis used for feminine singular.
اللواتي is used for feminine plural.
الذينَ is used for masculine plural.
a. If the antecedent is part of the subject phrase, the relative clause is embedded inside the main sentence.
الرَّجُلُ الذي سألَ عَنها هُنا.
b. If the antecedent is part of the object phrase/predicate, then the relative close follows the main sentence.
قابَلتُ الرَّجُلَ الذي سألَ عَنها.
c. If the antecedent is indefinite, you do not need to use a relative pronoun.
قابَلتُ رَجَُلا ً سألَ عَنها.
d. Sometimes you will encounter a sentence with a relative pronoun and a relative clause, in which the antecedent is absent, but still understood.
الذي دَرَّسَني العَربيَّة َ اُستاذ ٌ مصريٌّ.
Originally, this sentence is:
(الأستاذ ُ) الذي دَرَّسَني العَربيَّة َ اُستاذ ٌ مصريٌّ.
92.ما(Revisited).We mentioned earlier three possible ways of using this word. The fourth possibility for using ما is as a relative pronoun like الذي. With that, it can introduce a relative clause for an antecedent that is only expressed in a form of an object pronoun.
اُحِبُّ ما / الذي قـَرأتـُهُ هذا الأسبوعَ.
I like what I read this week.
93. The Cognate Accusative المَفعولُ المُطلقis a vebal noun, which is derived from the same verb of the sentence, and it does come in a phrase as:
a. indefinite that is followed by an adjective
يُحِبُّ هذا الرَّجُلُ بَلَدَهُ حُـبَّا ً عظيما ً.
This man loves his country a lot.
b. definite as a part of Idaafa or following بَعضٌ ، کـُلٌّ
تـَحترِمُ اُستاذتـَها احترامَ البنتِ لأمِّها.
She respects her professor (the way) a daughter respects her mother.
ساعَدَها أهلـُها کـُلَّ المساعَدَةِ.
Her family helped her greatly.
Please remember that the Cognate Accusative phrase functions as an adverb to modify the verb of the sentence.
94. The noun نـَفسُ is feminine and means “soul.” If you use it before another noun it will create Idaafa and change its meaning to “same.”
يأکلُ دائما ً في نفس ِ المطعم ِ.
He always eats at the same restaurant.
If it follows a noun, it should carry a corresponding pronoun reference to that noun and its case as well. Its function becomes emphatic.
قابلتُ المُراسِلَ نـَفسَهُ.
I met the correspondant, himself.
95. The Emphasis التوکيدwith the use of نـَفسُ ، بَعضُ ، کـُلُّ .Emphasis can be expressed by using any of the above particles after a noun, providing that an identical
personal pronoun be suffixed. The particle should carry the same case marker of the noun it refers to.
حَضَرَ المُعلـِّمُ نـَفسُهُ.
The teacher, himself, came.
شاهَدتُ المُدرِّساتِ کـُلـَّهُنَّ.
I saw the teachers (f), all of them.
تـَحَدَّثتُ إلی الطلابِ بَعضِهـِم.
I spoke to the students, some of them.
96.غيرُis a noun which will create Idaafa when it is used with another noun (a). It also serves to negate nouns and adjectives and may be translated “non-,” “un-,” and so on. When it is used in such a Syntactical Environment (i.e., with adjectives) it creates what we call “Phony/Fake Idaafa,” where the second term is an adjective (b).
a. حَضَرَ الاجتماعَ الطلابُ وغَيرُ الطلابِ.
Students and non-students attended the meeting
b. کانَ عَمَلـُهُ غَيرَ مَقبول ٍ.
His act was unacceptable.
97. The Imperative Mood of the verb is used when someone is given a direct command or making a request. This command/request is either (a) positive or (b) negative.
a. إذهبي إلی المَکتبَةِ
You (f.s.) go to the library!
b. لا تـَذهبي إلی المَکتبَةِ
You (f.s.) do not go to the library!
The verb that is used in both cases is formed from the second person Jussive Mood with a little modification. In (a) you need to drop the subject marker prefix and insert a Hamza /إ/ instead to break the resulting consonant cluster, as in ذهَبي. In the case of the negative imperative (b) you just put the negation particle لا in front of the verb.
98. Though the imperative structure is inherently addressed to a second person, itcan also be expressed indirectly. In this case you should have in mind either (a) first person or (b) third person. You can form that by prefixing the particles ( لـِ) or ( فـَلـ) to the Jussive Mood verb.
(a) لِنأکـُلْ في هذا المَطعَم ِ.
Let us eat at this restaurant!
Let them (m) go to their homes!
99. The preposition مُنذ ,which means “since,” is generally used with words that express time concepts such asساعَة ٌ ، يَومٌ ، اُسبوعٌ ، شهرٌ ، سَنَة ٌetc.
ذَهَبَ إلی البَيتِ مُنذ ُ ساعَةٍ.
He went home since an hour.
It can also be used with verbs and, therefore, changes its semantic/syntactic functions to an adverb of time.
ما قابَلتـُها مُنذ ُ افتـَرَقنا.
I have not met her since we separated.
100. The Apposition البَدَل(Revisted). A noun is said to be in apposition to another noun if it offers additional information about that noun. The apposition noun should agree with the original noun’s case, gender, and number.
قابَلتُ مُديرَ المَدرَسَةِ عليَّا ً.
I met the school principle, Mr. Ali.
101. Verbs of Beginning. Past tense verbs like بَدأ ، أخَذ َ ، جَعَلَ may be used with a following verb in the present indicative. Both verbs agree with the subject which, if expressed, should be placed between them, as in:
بَدأ الناسُ يَتـَحَدَّثونَ عَنْ وَضع ِ الأطفال ِ في العِراق ِ.
The people began to talk about the situation of children in Iraq.
102. The Active ParticipleإسمُالفاعِلIn general, the meaning of the active participle is “performing/having performed” the action indicated by the verb. The English equivalent is commonly (a) an adjective ending in -ing, as in:
(a) النـِّساءُ السَّاکناتُ في هذِهِ الشـَّقـَّةِ طالِباتٌ
The women living in this apartment are students.
In addition, a great many Active Participles have taken on specific concrete meanings and are used as (b) ordinary nouns such as:
(b) کاتِبٌ ، عامِلٌ ، طالِبٌ ، حاکِمٌ ، باحِثٌ ، ساکِنٌ
The third possible use of the active participle is what the Arab Grammarians call the circumstantial or Haal Construction.
حَضَرَتِ الطالبَة ُ إلی الصَّفِّ حامِلـَة ً کَتـُبَها.
The student (f) came to class carrying her book.
103. The Derivation of the Active Participle.The Active Participle derivation pattern for verb Form I is usually فاعِل. For the other forms (II-X), the pattern is to prefix ( مـُ ) to the stem. The stem vowel on the second radical is always Kasra. An exception to that is for pattern IX, which has to be FatHa. Notice the following examples:
(IV، مُقبـِل ((III) ، مُساعِد (II) مُدرِّس
(VII)، مَنصَرِف )VI) ، مُتراسِل(V)مُتکـَلـِّم
(X)مُستـَقبـِل، (IX)، مُحمَرّ(VIII) مُستـَمِع
104. The nouns أبٌand أخٌwill take long vowel markers instead of the usual short vowels. This usage is restricted to two conditions: (a) as a first term of Idaafa or (b) when a possessive pronoun is attached to either of them.
(a) قابَلني أبو جاري.
قابَلتُ أبا جاري.
سَلـَّمتُ علی أبي جاري.
(b) قابَلني أبوها.
سَلـَّمتُ علی أبيها.
105. The Haal Construction . الحالAs indicated earlier the active participle can be used in the Haal Construction. It has to be indefinite and in the accusative case. It has to agree with the modified noun in number and gender. Also, you need to remember that the Haal could be a clause. Notice how the following sentence can be expressed.
حضَرَتِ الطالِبَة ُ إلی الصَّفِّ حامِلـَة ً کـُتـُبَها.
The student (f) came to class carrying her book.
1. حضَرَتِ الطالِبَة ُ إلی الصَّفِّ وهي تـَحمِلُ کـُتـُبَها.
2. حضَرَتِ الطالِبَة ُ إلی الصَّفِّ تـَحمِلُ کـُتـُبَها.
You might have noticed that the verb of the Haal Clause has to be in the present indicative mood. Because the verb حَمَلَ is transitive, the active participle derived from it would take an object. That is why the noun کـُتـُبَهاin the sentence above is in the accusative case.
Obviously, if a verb is intransitive, such as ضَحِكَ, the active participle will not require an object. Check the following sentence:
حَضَرَتِ الطالِبَة ُ إلی الصَّفِّ ضاحِکـَة ً.
The student (f) came to class smiling.
You need to remember that whether the Haal Construction الحالis expressed by a verbal sentence or an equational sentence, the independent pronoun agrees with the noun modified by the .الحال
دَرَسَ العَرَبيَّة َ وهو صَغيرٌ.
He studied Arabic while he was little/young.
106. The Passive Participle إسم المَفعول is only derived from transitive verbs. The basic meaning of the passive participle is “undergoing or having undergone the action
indicated by the verb.” The most common use of the passive participle is as an adjective.
شاهَدتُ السَّيارةَ المَسروقـَة َ أمامَ مَکتبِ البَريدِ.
I saw the stolen car in front of the post office.
Secondly, it can be used with غَيرُ as a second term of a fake Idaafa.
تَعتبـِرُها الجامِعَة ُ شخصاً غَيرَ مَرغوبٍ فيهِ.
The university considers her an undesirable person.
Thirdly, it can be used as a a regular noun.
مِنَ المَعروفِ أنَّ العَرَبَ ساهَموا مُساهَمَة ً عَظيمَة ً في الحَضارَةِ الأنسانيَّة ِ.
It is well known that the Arabs have greatly participated in the world civilization.
107. The Derivation of Passive Participle إسم المَفعول You may derive a passive participle for Form I by using the patternمَفعول . Examples are:
مُدَرِّس ، مَقروء ، مَکتوب ، مُستـَخدَم
For the other forms, you replace the stem Kasra vowel with FatHa, as in:
مُقابَل ، مُکرَم ، مُحتـَرَم ، مَستـَخدَم
108. Negation Particle لـَيسَ(Revisited). In rule # 22, it was mentioned that any form of لـَيسَis used to negate Equational Sentences.We also said in rule # 62 that present tense verbal sentences are negated by using لا . Please check the following sentences:
نـَعرِفُ أنَّ السَّادات کانَ واحِداً من أبطالِ الثورةِ المصريَّةِ.
We know that Sadaat was one of the heros of the Egyptian revolution.
لا نـَعرِفُ أنَّ السَّادات کانَ واحِداً من أبطالِ الثورةِ المصريَّةِ.
We don’t know that Sadaat was one of the heros of the Egyptian revolution.
If, however, the same sentence starts with a pronoun subject, Arabic allows you to negate it with لـَيسَ . In fact, this form of negation is pretty strong.
نـَحنُ نـَعرِفُ أنَّ السَّادات کانَ واحِداً من أبطالِ الثورةِ المصريَّةِ.
لـَسنا نـَعرِفُ أنَّ السَّادات کانَ واحِداً من أبطالِ الثورةِ المصريَّةِ.
109. The Accusative of Distinction (Revisited) ألتمييز . In point # 48 we mentioned that کـَم,which means “how many,” should always be followed by an idefinite noun
in the accusative case. Arab Grammarians called this noun التمييز العَدَدي“The Distinction of Number.” Consider the following example:
قـَرأتُ عِشرينَ کِتاباً خِلالَ العُطلـَةِ.
I read twenty books during the break.
The underlined word could be articles, reports, magazines, charts, etc.
There is another form of this accusative noun which deals with kind/type. It is called .التمييز النوعي Usually it is an indefinite singular noun/verbal noun which has the meaning of “with respect to, in terms of, as to,” and thus involves some level of comparison.
هي أکثرُ الطلابِ استِعداداً للأمتحانِ.
As to preparedness for the exam, she is the most among all students.
However, it is not necessary that the accusative of distinction is limited to expressing comparison. Consider the following sentence:
مَلأتِ الأمُّ البَيتَ سَعادَةً.
The mother filled the house (with) happiness.
110. Particles of Exception . أدوات الأستثناء This category includes:
إلاَّ ، عَدا ، حاشا ، سِوی ، خَلا
A noun that follows any of the above has to be in the accusative case. Examples are:
a. with an intransitive verb:
جاءَ الطلابُ إلاَّ خالِداً.
The students came, except for Khalid.
b. with a transitive verb:
زارَ الطلابُ المَتحَفَ إلاَّ خالداً
The students visited the museum, except for Khalid.
However, if the verb is negated and the semantics of the sentence imply that the noun which follows إلاَّis the one who performed the verb’s act, then Arabic allows you to put that noun in the nominative case.
لـَمْ يَذهَبِ الطلابُ إلی المَتحَفِ إلاَّ خالدٌ.
The students did not go to the museum, except for Khalid.
111. The Accusative of Purpose المفعول لأجله is an indefinite, singular verbal noun in the accusative case. It gives informationabout why the action/verb is done. It can always be an answer to the question word .لماذاConsider the following sentences:
The students stood up.
لِماذا قامَ الطلابُ؟
Why did the students stand up?
قامَ الطلابُ احتِراماً للأستاذِ.
The students stood up in respect for the professor.
112. The Absolute Negation. It was mentioned earlier that one has to use some form of لَيسَ to negate the Arabic equational sentence. However, Arab grammarians have also defined a rather “strong” semantic environment where you have to useÍ instead. They called this method لا النافية للجِنس. Check the following examples:
1. There is a man in the house. في البَيتِ رَجُلٌ.
2. There is no man in the house. لـَيسَ في البَيتِ رَجُلٌ.
3. There is a no man in the house. لا رَجُلَ في البَيتِ.
Functional Arabic Verbs List
Depending on the type of the verb used in a sentence, there are three patterns of Arabic Verbal Sentences.
1. Basically, a transitive verb needs an object, and the pattern is:
(Option. Adv. Ph. 3) +(Op. Adv. 2) +(Op. Adv. Ph. 1) + Object + Subject+ Verb
طَبَخَت والدتي وَجبَة ً لذيذةٍ بسُرعَةٍ (في مَطبَخِها) قَبلَ ساعَةٍ.
1 2 3
My mother cooked a delicious meal in her kitchen an hour ago.
Optional means that you can have 1, 2 ,3, or NONE of those adverbial phrases. The order depends on what you want to emphasize. The most important comes last.
2. An intransitive verb does not need an object, and the pattern is:
(Op. Adv. Ph. 3) +(Op. Adv. 2)+(Op. Adv. Ph. 1) + Subject+ Verb
جَلسَتْ اُختي وَحيدَة ً في غُرفتِها طولَ اليَومِ.
My sister sat by herself in her room all day long.
3. If the intransitive verb takes a preposition the pattern is:
(Op. Adv. Ph. 1) + Object of the Prep. + Preposition + Subject+ Verb
ذهَبَ أخي إلی المکتـَبَةِ مَنذ ُ ساعَةٍ.
My brother went to the library since an hour.
Please note the following :
* Indicates a “sick verb” which means that there is a long vowel among the 3 Radical Letters of its root.
** Indicates a double end “Shadda Verb.”
Both types behave a little bit different from the regular verbs when theyare conjugated to the various subject pronouns.
Arabic Verbs List
to travel .سافـَر1
to eat. أکَـَل2
to meet . قابَل3
to write. کـَتـَب4
to drink. شَرِب5
to ask. سأل6
to read. قـَرَأ 7
to work, do . عَمُل8
to obtain, get . حَصَل علی9
to befriend with. صادَق/ تَصادق معَ10
* to buy .إشتری11
* to walk. مَشی12
to talk with . تَحَدَّثَ / تکـَلـَّم مَعَ13
to talk aboutعَن. تَحَدَّثَ / تکـَلـَّم 14
to hear. سَمِع15
to listen to . إستـَمَع إلی16
to learn . عَلِمَ17
to learn sth. . تعلـَّم 18
to play . لـَعِب19
to go . ذَهَب20
to leave. تَرَك21
to run . رَكَـَض22
to ride . رَکِب23
* to drive, lead . قاد24
to cook . طـَبَخ25
* to sleep . نام26
*to wake up . صحا27
**to shower . إستحَمَّ28
to welcome, receive someone . رَحَّب29
to see, watch . شاهَد30
to carry . حمَل31
to move, transfer. نقل32
to go up . صَعد33
to go down . نزل34
to rent . إستأجر35
to spend . صَرَف36
to exchange (currency) . صَرَّف37
* to stand up . وَقف38
to sit down . جَلس39
to dance . رَقص40
* to sing . غنـَّی41
to help, assist . ساعَد42
to begin, start . بَدَأ43
to complete, finish . أکمَل44
to argue تَناقش. 45
to discuss ناقش. 46
to look for .بَحَث عن47
* to fly . طار48
to book, reserve. حَجَز49
* to cry. بکی51
** to like, love . أحبَّ52
to hate . کَرِه53
* to visit . زار54
to marry . تزوَّج55
to elect . إنتخَب56
to become sick . مَرِض57
to feel, sense . شَعَر58
to swim . سَبَح59
to hug, embrace . حَضَن60
to kiss . قبَّل61
to open . فتح62
to close . أغلق63
to hit . ضَرَب64
to jump. قـَفـَز65
to be informed . اُخبـِر66
to teach . دَرَّس ، عَلـَّم 67
to wear . لَبِس68
to take off . خَلَع69
to drink . شَرِب70
to answer . أجاب71
to correspond with . تَراسَل72
to be angry with . غَضِب مِن/علی73
to compete with . تَنافَس74
to take . أخَذ75
* to give . أعطی76
to author . ألـَّف77
to steal . سَرَق78
to think . فـَکـَّر79
to believe . إعتَقَد80
to immigrate . هاجَر81
to attack . هاجَم82
to live, reside . سَکن83
to graduate . تخَرَّج84
to advertise, announce . أعلن85
to smile . إبتَسَم86
to use . إستعمُل87
to employ . إستَخدَم88
to mention . ذَکـَر89
to remember . تذَکـَّر90
to assemble, meet . إجتَمَع91
*to borrow (not money) . إستعار92
to introduce . قدَّم93
to imagine . تصَوَّر94
to preserve, maintain . حافَظ علی95
** to solve . حَلَّ96
to escape . هَرَب97
** to continue . واصَل98
to greet . سَلـَّم علی99
* to arrive . وصَل100
* to find 101. وَجَد
* to promise 102. وَعَد
* to invite 103. دعا
to recover104. إسترجَع
* to act cruely, to be harsh . قسا105
* to walk . مَشی106
* to return . عاد 107
*to forget . نسي108
to criticize . إنتـَقـَد109
to influence, affect . أثـَّر110
to exit . خَرَج111
to enter . دَخَل112
to scream, shout . صَرَخ113
to whisper . هَمَس114
to cross . عَبَر115
to express . عَبَّر عَن116
*to say . قال117
*to buy . إشتری118
*to complain . شکا119
*to grow . نَما120
to win . رَبِح121
to lose . خَسِر122
to participate . شارَك123
*to fast . صام124
*to pray . صَلـَی125
*to build . بَنی126
to demolish, tear down . هَدَم127
to convert to Islam . أسلـَم 128
to surrender. إستسلـَم 129
**to settle down . إستـَقـَرّ130
to be able. تـَمَکـَّن131
to please . أفرَح132
to make happy . أسعَد133
to raise an issue . أثار134
*to add . أضاف135
to demand . طالـَب136
to happen . حَدَث137
*to remain, stay . بَقي138
to try . حاوَل139
*to be . کان140
to take place, occur . حَدَث141
to exert . بَذل142
to apologize . إعتذ َر143
*to want . تَمنـَّی144
**to respond . رَدّ145
to do . عَمِل146
to accept . قـَبـِل147
to decline, refuse . رَفـَض148
to lose . فـَقـَد149
to expose . کَشـَف150
to push, pay . دَفـَع151
to deal with a matter, to eat a meal . تـَناوَل152
to discover. إکتـَشَف153
*to repeat . أعاد154
to supervise . راقـَب155
to encourage . شَجَّع156
to lie . کذب157
to prefer . فـَضَّـل158
to trust . وَثِق159
**to continue . إستمَرّ160
*to accept . وافق 161
**to decrease . قـَلّ162
*to increase . إزداد 163
to appear . ظهَر 164
to save . أنقـَذ165
to pressure . ضَغـَط علی166
*to come . جاء 167
to differ . إختـَلـَف168
**to doubt . شَكّ169
to understand . فـَهِم170
to serve . [خَدَم171
*to describe . وَصَف172
**to think, believe . ظـنّ173
to wait . إنتـَظـَر174
to be late . تأخَّر175
to surprise . فاجأ176
to bother, harrass . أزعَج177
to calculate, assume . خَمَّن178
*to indicate . أشار إلی179
to include . شَمِل180
*to manage, direct . أدار181
to get closer . إقتـَرَب182
to accuse . إتـَّهَم183
to exceed . تـَجاوز184
to explain . شَرَح185
to define . حَدَّد186
to achieve, investigate . حَقـَّق187
to be exposed . إنکشَف188
to expect . توَقـَّع189
to carry out, execute . نـَفـَّذ190
to wonder, question oneself . تَساءَل191
*to stroll, walk around . تَمَشـَّی192
to succeed . نـَجَح193
to fail . فَشِل194
to commit a mistake, crime . إرتـَکـَب195
to honor . أکرَم196
to renew . جَدَّد197
to get angry . غَضِب198
to target . إستـَهدف199
to be hesitant, to be spread (rumor) . تَرَدَّد200
to kill . قَتَل201
to wound . جَرِح 202
. **to get ready . إستـَعَدّ203
to allow204. سَمَح
to take205. أخـَذ
to eat206. أکـَل
to come, attend207. حَضَر
to study208. دَرَس
to mention209. ذَکـَر
*to visit210. زار
to live, reside211. سَکـَن
to write212. کـَتـَب
*to live213. عاش
*to be absent214. غاب
to spend the night, evening215. سَهَر
to memorize216. حَفِظ
to wear217. لـَبـِس
to play218. لـَعِب
to smoke219. دَخـَّن
to change sth.220. غَـيَّر
to help221. ساعَد
to travel222. سافـَر
to be late223. تـَأخَّر
to be busy224. إنشَغـَل
to meet, assemble225. إجتـَمَع
to move to226. إنتـَقـَل إلی
to rent227. إستأجَر
to welcome228. إستـَقبَل
to leave 229. تَرَك
to occupy230. إحتـَلّ