Arabic Prepositions (Huruwf-ul-Jarr) – The all arabic preposition

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Arabic  Prepositions (Huruwf-ul-Jarr)

Introduction – مُقَدِّمَةٌ

  • In this lesson we will learn the following things:
    • The rules for using prepositions (the words used to connect two or more words or sentences) and the four most common prepositions (Click on the Arabic words to hear the correct pronunciation of that word).

English

Arabic

English

Arabic

In

فِي

On

عَلَىٰ

From

مِنْ

To

إِلَىٰ

    • The rule for the use of interrogative expressions – i.e. the sentences used to ask the questions, and some of the interrogative (questioning) words like:

English

Arabic

English

Arabic

Where

أَيْنَ

Is

أَ

What

مَاذَا

Who

مَنْ

    • Some of the Personal pronouns – e.g.:

English

Person

Gender

Arabic

I

1st
(person speaking)

Masculine/Feminine

أَنَا

You

2nd
(person being spoken to)

Masculine

أَنْتَ

You

2nd
(person being spoken to)

Feminine

أَنْتِ

He

3rd
(person being spoken about – i.e. not present)

Masculine

هُوَ

She

3rd 
(person being spoken about – i.e. not present)

Feminine

هِيَ

    • The difference between the masculine and the feminine words and their punctuation and the three ways of changing a masculine noun to the feminine.

English

Arabic Symbol

Arabic

By adding /ta’ marbūta/

ة

خَالِدَةُ

By adding /alif maqŝūra/

ىٰ

أَقْصَىٰ

By adding /alif mamdūda/

اء

أَسْمَاءُ

    • The difference between the nominal sentences (starting –originally- with a noun) and the verbal sentences (starting –originally- with a verb):

Grammatical term

The Nominal Sentence

/Al ĵumla tul Ismiyya/

الْجُمْلَةُ الاسْمِيَّةُ

The Verbal Sentence

/Al ĵumla tul Fiξliyya/

الْجُمْلَةُ الْفِعْلِيَّةُ

Arabic

أَحْمَدُ ذَهَبَ إِلَىٰ الْجَامِعَةِ.

ذَهَبَ أَحْمَدُ إِلَىٰ الْجَامِعَةِ.

Transliteration

/Ahmadu dhahaba ilal ĵāmiξati/

/Dhahaba Ahmadu ilal ĵāmiξati/

Literally Reading

Ahmad went to the university

Went Ahmad to the university

 

 

 

Prepositions (Huruwf-ul-Jarr)

 

 

Aside from nouns (things) and verbs (actions), English and Arabic also contain prepositions–words like “in”, “at”, “from”, and so on. In Arabic, these are called Huruwf-ul-Jarr (حُرُوف الجَرّ; singular is Harf-ul-Jarr).

In Arabic grammar, the word that immediately follows the preposition becomes majruwr!

For example, you can say: الكِتَابُ عَلَى مَكتَبِ (al-kitaabu ‘ala al-maktabi)–”The book is on the table.” Here, we see the preposition ‘ala (on), and maktab (table), the word that follows ‘ala, becomes majruwr.

Or, you can say: البَطَّةُ فِي بَيتِكُم (al-battatu fiy baytikum)–”The duck is in your house.” Here, the preposition is fiy (in), and your house (baytikum) is majruwr. And you can have as many prepositions in a sentence as you like–just not back-to-back (eg. haadhaa fiy min …)

The table below lists all the huruwf-ul-jarr and their meanings, the meaning really depends on the context–i.e. the meaning changes depending on where and how the harf is used. So keep that in mind insha’Allah.

Arabic Transliteration Meaning
فِي fiy in
إلَى ila to (eg. travel to)
عَلَى ‘ala on (top of)
مِن min from
لِ li for (eg. for you)
مَعَ ma’a with
بِ bi with
حَتَّى hatta until
مُنذُ mundhu since
عَن aan about
كَ ka like/as

 

English Prepositions Arabic Prepositions
Prepositions حُرُوْف الْجَر – horowf aljar
inside the house دَاخِل الْمَنْزِل – daakhel almanzel
outside the car خَارِج الْسَّيَّارَة – khaarej alsaeeaarah
with me مَعِي – ma’eee
without him بِدُوْنِه – bedowneh
under the table تَحْت الْطَّاولَة – taht altaawlah
after tomorrow بَعْد غَد – ba’d ghad
before sunset قَبْل الْغُرُوْب – qabl alghorowb
but I’m busy وَلَكِن أَنَا مَشْغُوْل – walaken aanaa mashghowl

 

Arabic Prepositions

About: hawla  حولَ

By: ‘ala  على

On: ‘ala… على

Above: fawqa  فوقَ

close by: bel qurbi men   بالقرب من

on top of: fawqa… فوقَ

according to…: wafqan li …وفقا ل

close to: bejaneb …بجانب

Opposite to: ‘aksa…  عكسَ

Across: ‘abra    عبرَ

Concerning: bekhosoos   بخصوص

Out: khaarej… خارج

After: ba’da  بعدَ

Despite: raghma   رغمَ

Outside…: bel kharej men… بالخارج

Against: dedda  ضدَ

Down: tahta  تحت

Over: ‘ala… على

ahead of: amama  أمامَ

due to: naatej ‘an   ناتج عن

Per …: li kolli…  لكل

all over: men jaded  من جديد

During: khelaala  خلالَ

Plus …: idafatan ila…إضافةً الى

Along: ‘ala tool   على طول

except for: bestethnaa’ (th as in think)  باستثناء

Regarding: bekhosoos…بخصوص

Among: men bayn من بين

Excluding: mostathnian   مستثنياً

Save: bestithnaa’ (th as in think)…باستثناء

Around: hawla حولَ

for: li…. ل

similar to: moshaabeh li…مشابه ل

As: ka…كَ

From: men   من

Since: mundu…منذُ

As … as: … ka ….كَ

In: fi… فِ

Than: men… من

Aside: bejaaneb   بجانب

in front of: amama   أمامَ

thanks to…: befadli…بفضل

At: ‘ala   على

in place of: makana …مكانَ

Through: khelaala …خلالَ

away from: ba’eedan ‘an  بعيدا عن

in spite of: berraghmi men….بالرغم من

Till: ila (or) ila ghaayat …الىor الى غاية

because of: besababi   بسبب

Including: mo’taberan   معتبراً

To: ila …إلى

Before: qabla   قبلَ

Inside: beddakhel… بالدّاخل

Towards: bettejaah … باتجاه

Behind: waraa’   وراءَ

instead of: ‘ewadan ‘an …عوضاً عن

Under: tahta…تحت

Below: tahta  تحت

Less: aqal… أقل

Unlike: kheelafan ‘an…خلافاً عن

Beneath: men taht  من تحت

Like …: methla …  (or) ka …مثلَ . (or) كَ

Until: ila ghayet …الى غاية

Beside: bejaneb   بجانب

Minus: naqes …ناقص

Up: fawq  فوق

Besides: bel idafati ila   باللإضافة الى

Near: qareeb… قريب

Versus: ‘aaksa …عكسَ

Between: bayna  بينَ

near to …: qareeb men…. قريبٌ من

Via: ‘abra….عبر

Beyond: wara’a  وراءَ

next to: bejaneb …بجانب

With: ma’a….مع

But: laken  لكن

Of: men (not for possessive)… من

Without: bedoon…بدون

Wherever: haithumaa (th as in think)   حيثما

Whenever: kullamaa  كلّما

When (not for question): ‘endamaa  عندما

If: ithaa (th as in this)   إذا

Either … or: imma ….aw …  إمّا….أو

Neither … nor: laa ….. wala …   لا….ولا

As if: kamaa law…   كما لو…

 

the all arabic preposition
About: hawla حولَ By: ‘ala على
Above: fawqa فوقَ close by: bel qurbi men بالقرب من
according to…: wafqan li …وفقا ل close to: bejaneb …بجانب
Across: ‘abra عبرَ Concerning: bekhosoos بخصوص
After: ba’da بعدَ Despite: raghma رغمَ
Against: dedda ضدَ Down: tahta تحت
ahead of: amama أمامَ due to: naatej ‘an ناتج عن
all over: men jaded من جديد During: khelaala خلالَ
Along: ‘ala tool على طول except for: bestethnaa’ (th as in think) باستثناء
Among: men bayn من بين Excluding: mostathnian مستثنياً
Around: hawla حولَ for: li…. ل
From: men من
As … as: … ka ….كَ In: fi… فِ
Aside: bejaaneb بجانب in front of: amama أمامَ
At: ‘ala على in place of: makana …مكانَ
away from: ba’eedan ‘an بعيدا عن in spite of: berraghmi men….بالرغم من
because of: besababi بسبب Including: mo’taberan معتبراً
Before: qabla قبلَ Inside: beddakhel… بالدّاخل
Behind: waraa’ وراءَ instead of: ‘ewadan ‘an … عوضاً عن
Below: tahta تحت Less: aqal… أقل
Beneath: men taht من تحت Like …: methla … (or) ka …مثلَ . (or) كَ
Beside: bejaneb بجانب Minus: naqes …ناقص
Besides: bel idafati ila باللإضافة الى Near: qareeb… قريب
Between: bayna بينَ near to …: qareeb men…. قريبٌ من
Beyond: wara’a وراءَ next to: bejaneb …بجانب
But: laken لكن Of: men (not for possessive)… من

On: ‘ala… على
on top of: fawqa… فوقَ
Opposite to: ‘aksa… عكسَ
Out: khaarej… خارج
Outside…: bel kharej men… بالخارج
Over: ‘ala… على
Regarding: bekhosoos…بخصوص
Save: bestithnaa’ (th as in think)…باستثناء
Without: bedoon…بدون
Since: mundu…منذُ
Than: men… من

Through: khelaala …خلالَ
Till: ila (or) ila ghaayat …الى or الى غاية
To: ila …إلى
Towards: bettejaah … باتجاه
Under: tahta…تحت
Up: fawq فوق
Versus: ‘aaksa …عكسَ
Via: ‘abra….عبر
With: ma’a….مع