Arabic Inflecting the verb for the passive voice

Arabic Inflecting the verb for the passive voice

The previous section outlined the steps of passive transformation without dealing

with step 3: “Inflect the verb for the passive voice”. This is done by changing

the vowel quality of specific vowels in the verb. In other words, what distinguishes

the active from the passive is internal vocalization of the verb.

Passive vocalization of the perfect tense verb

For the perfect form of the verb, the following are the relevant vowels:

v0 = initial vowel, v1 = the ف vowel, v2 = the ع vowel

(Forms I, II, and III have no initial vowel v0.)

Passive vocalization of the perfect:

If present, vowel v0 has to be /u/

If present, vowel v1 has to be /u/

Vowel v2 has to be /i/

Vowel transformations to inflect active for passive

The following chart illustrates the vowel transformations necessary to inflect

active perfect tense verbs for the passive voice:

Form Active Transformation Passive Example

I f + v1 + c + v2 + l {facal} v1 􀃆 u, v2 􀃆 i fucil قُطِع

{facul} v1 􀃆 u, v2 􀃆 i fucil none

{facil} v1 􀃆 u, v2 􀃆 i fucil فُهِم

II f + v1 + cc + v2 + l faccal v1 􀃆 u, v2 􀃆 i fuccil كُسِّر

 

 

 

Passive

vocalization

of the perfect

tense verb

III f + v1 + c + v2 + l faacal v1 􀃆 u, v2 􀃆 i fuucil لوحِظ

IV ‘ + v0 + f + c + v2 + l ‘afcal v0 􀃆 uu, v2 􀃆 i ‘ufcil أُخرِج

V t + v0 + f + v1 + cc +

v2 + l

tafaccal v0􀃆u, v1􀃆 u, v2􀃆 i rare

tufuccil

تُقُبِّل

VI t + v0 + f + v1 + c +

v2 + l

tafaacal v0􀃆u, v1􀃆 u, v2􀃆 i rare

tufuucil

تُنووِل

VII ‘ + v0 + n + f + v1 + c

+ v2 + l

infacal none

VIII ‘ + v0 + f + t + v1 + c +

v2 + l

iftacal v0􀃆 u, v2􀃆 i iftucil اِقتُرِح

IX ‘ + v0 + f + c + v2 + l + l ifcall none

X ‘ist + v0 + f + c + v2 + l istafcal v0􀃆 u, v2􀃆 i istufcil اِستُقبِل

Generalizations about the perfect in the passive voice

If there is a v0, the vowel quality is /u/.

If there is a v1, the vowel quality is /u/.

The v2 vowel quality is /i/.

Rare passives for forms V and VI.

No passives for forms VII and IX because they are reflexive in meaning.

Active and passive forms of the perfect tense

The following summary chart contrasts the perfect active and passive.

Form Active Passive

I فُعِل فَعَل

فَعِل

II فُعِّل فَعَّل

III فوعِل فاعَل

IV أُفعِل أَفعَل

V تَفَعَّل rare تُفوعِل

___________VI تَفاعَل rare تُفوعِل

VII اِنفَعَل none

VIII اِفتُعِل اِفتَعَل

IX اِفعَلّ none

X اِستُفعِل اِستَفعَل